Sintering diagrams of titanium powders

M. I. Alymov, S. I. Averin, S. V. Semichev

Sintering of powder compacts can lead to an increase in their density, with the neck between the particles growing. Powder sintering diagrams are constructed in coordinates: the relative size of the particles radius (the size of the neck between the sintered particles divided by the particle radius) and the homological melting temperature of the material. To build sintering diagrams, it is necessary to solve a system of pairs of velocity equations for the existing sintering mechanisms. The solution gives the equations of the boundaries separating the regions on the graph “relative radius of the particles – homological temperature”, in which the sintering rate by one mechanism is greater than the other. At these boundaries, the two selected sintering mechanisms make equal contributions to the growth rate of the neck between particles. Sintering diagrams of titanium powders of various dispersions were built (with an average particle size of 0,1 mkm, 1 mkm, 5 mkm and 10 mkm.). The sintering diagrams show that the dominant mechanisms of the sintering of titanium micro- and nanopowders in the temperature range 0,6 – 0,9 absolute melting temperature are surface diffusion from the surface and volume diffusion of the substance from the sources at the boundaries of grains.

 

Keywords: sintering, sintering diagrams, titanium, sintering mechanisms, diffusion.

 

DOI: 10.30791/1028-978X-2020-6-5-9

Alymov Mikhail — Merzhanov Institute of Structural Macrokinetics and Materials Science Russian Academy of Sciences (ISMAN, Academician Osipyan str., 8, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region, 142432, Russia), corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, director, specialist in the field of powder metallurgy and composite materials. E-mail: alymov@ism.ac.ru.

Averin Sergei — Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IMET RAS, 49, Leninsky prospect, 119334 Moscow, Russia), researcher, specialist in the field of powder metallurgy. E-mail: qqzz@mail.ru.

Semichev Sergei — Merzhanov Institute of Structural Macrokinetics and Materials Science Russian Academy of Sciences (ISMAN, Academician Osipyan str., 8, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region, 142432, Russia), leading engineer, specialist in the field of powder metallurgy. E-mail: dobro@verba.ru.

Reference citing

Alymov M.I., Averin S.I., Semichev S.V. Diagrammy spekaniya poroshkov titana [Sintering diagrams of titanium powders]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2020, no. 6, pp. 5 – 9. DOI: 10.30791/1028-978X-2020-6-5-9

Trends in the development of flexible thermal protection
 systems for modern aircraft

V. G. Babashov, N. M. Varrik

The emergence of new types of space and aviation technology necessitates the development of new types of thermal protection systems capable of operating at high temperature and long operating times. There are several types of thermal protection systems for different operating conditions: active thermal protection systems using forced supply of coolant to the protected surface, passive thermal protection systems using materials with low thermal conductivity without additional heat removal, high-temperature systems, which are simultaneously elements of the bearing structure and provide thermal protection, ablation materials. Heat protection systems in the form of rigid tiles and flexible panels, felt and mats are most common kind of heat protecting systems. This article examines the trends of development of flexible reusable heat protection systems intended for passive protection of aircraft structural structures from overheating.

Keywords: thermal protection systems, high temperature heat insulation, refractory fiber, protective coating.

DOI: 10.30791/1028-978X-2020-6-10-21

 

Babashov Vladimir — Federal State Unitary Enterprise “All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Aviation Materials” State Research Center of the Russian Federation (105005, Moscow, ul. Radio, 17), PhD (Eng), chief of laboratory, expert in the area of refractory oxides fibers, heat-shielding and heat insulation materials. E-mail: viam29@mail.ru.

Varrik Natalia — Federal State Unitary Enterprise “All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Aviation Materials” State Research Center of the Russian Federation (105005, Moscow, st. Radio, 17), leading engineer, expert in the area of fibers refractory oxides, heat-shielding and heat insulation materials. E-mail: nvarrik@mail.ru.

Reference citing

Babashov V.G., Varrik N.M. Tendencii razvitiya gibkih sistem teplozashchity sovremennyh letatel'nyh apparatov (Obzor) [Trends in the development of flexible thermal protection systems for modern aircraft]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2020, no. 6, pp. 10 – 21. DOI: 10.30791/1028-978X-2020-6-10-21

 
Formation of oxygen-containing centers in irradiated silicon crystals during annealing in 450 – 700 °С temperature range

E. A. Talkachova, L. I. Murin, I. F. Medvedeva,
F. P. Korshunov, V. P. Markevich

The processes associated with transformations of oxygen-related radiation-induced defects in Czochralski-grown silicon crystals irradiated with fast electrons or neutrons and subjected to heat-treatments in the temperature range 450 – 700 °C have been studied by means of IR absorption spectroscopy. It is found that upon disappearance of the VO3 and VO4 defects the new vacancy-oxygen-related complexes, which give rise to a number of vibrational absorption bands in the 980 – 1115 cm–1 vawenumber range, are formed. It is argued that these complexes are VOm (m ≥ 5) defects which serve as radiation-induced nucleation centers of enhanced oxygen precipitation.

 

Keywords: silicon, irradiation, annealing, vacancy-oxygen-related complexes, IR absorption.

 

DOI: 10.30791/1028-978X-2020-6-22-29

Talkachova Katsiaryna — SSPA Scientific-Practical Materials Research Center of NAS of Belarus (19 P. Brovki str., Minsk, 220072, Belarus), PhD (Phys-Math), senior researcher, specialist in the field of radiation physics of semiconductor silicon. E-mail:
talkachova@physics.by.

Murin Leonid — SSPA Scientific-Practical Materials Research Center of NAS of Belarus (19 P. Brovki str., Minsk, 220072, Belarus), PhD (Phys-Math), leading researcher, specialist in the field of radiation physics of semiconductors. E-mail: murin@ifttp.bas-net.by.

Medvedeva Irina — Belarusian State Medical University (Belarus, 83 Dzerzinski Ave., Minsk, 220016, Belarus), PhD (Phys-Math), associated professor, specialist in the field of physics of radiation-induced defects in silicon. E-mail: medvedeva@ifttp.bas-net.by.

 

Korshunov Feodor — SSPA Scientific-Practical Materials Research Center of NAS of Belarus (19 P. Brovki str., Minsk, 220072, Belarus), Dr Sci (Eng), corresponding member of NAS of Belarus, professor, chief researcher, specialist in the field of radiation physics of semiconductor materials and devices. E-mail: korshun@ifttp.bas-net.by.

Markevich Vladimir — Photon Science Institute and School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Manchester (Manchester M13 9PL, United Kingdom), PhD (Phys-Math), senior research fellow, specialist in the field of semiconductor radiation physics. E-mail:V.Markevich@manchester.ac.uk.

Reference citing

Talkachova E.A., Murin L.I., Medvedeva I.F., Korshunov F.P., Markevich V.P. Formirovanie kislorodosoderzhashchih centrov v obluchennyh kristallah kremniya pri otzhige v intervale temperatur 450 – 700 °S [Formation of oxygen-containing centers in irradiated silicon crystals during annealing in 450 – 700 °С temperature range]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2020, no. 6, pp. 22 – 29. DOI: 10.30791/1028-978X-2020-6-22-29

 
Separation of oil emulsion using polyacrylonitrile membranes, modified by corona discharge

I. G. Shaikhiev, V. O. Dryakhlov, M. F. Galikhanov,
D. D. Fazullin, G. V. Mavrin

It is investigated the influence of the parameters of the unipolar corona discharge (the treatment time, voltage) on the performance and selectivity of separation of model emulsions “oil in water” based on the oil in the Devonian deposits Tomatocage field (Republic of Tatarstan) using polyacrylonitrile membranes with a molecular weight cut-off of 60 kDa particles. Determined COD values of the original emulsions and filtrates. The values of the processing time (30 seconds) and voltage of the corona (5 kV) membranes, which achieved the best performance and selectivity of the separation process of oil-water emulsion. Sitting drop methods, x-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy showed changes of the surface structure and internal structure of treated membrane. In particular, there was decrease in the wetting angle from 45.1 to 43.3 and an increase in the degree of crystallinity from 0.15 to 0.18, which is due to the flow on the surface of PES membrane processes of etching and oxidation resulting from exposure to a unipolar corona discharge ozone, which is also confirmed by images of the surface of the filter elements and the histograms of the topography, based on which it showed a decrease in height and number of protrusions from 42 nm and 7500 to 10 nm and 2500.

 

Keywords: water-oil emulsion, separation, polyacrylonitrile membrane, corona discharge, treatment.

DOI: 10.30791/1028-978X-2020-6-30-37

Shaikhiev Ildar — Kazan National research technological university (Kazan, 420015, Karl Marx str, 68), Dr Sci (Eng), head of engineering ecology department. E-mail: ildars@inbox.ru.

Dryakhlov Vladislav — Kazan National research technological university (Kazan, 420015, Karl Marx str, 68), PhD (Eng), associate professor of engineering ecology department. E-mail: vladisloved@mail.ru.

Galikhanov Mansur — Kazan National research technological university (Kazan, 420015, Karl Marx str, 68), Dr Sci (Eng), professor, specialist in processing technology of polymers and composite materials. E-mail: mgalikhanov@yandex.ru.

Fazullin Dinar — Naberezhnye Chelny Institute (branch) of Kazan Federal University (Naberezhnye Chelny, 423810, prospect Mira, 68/19), PhD (Eng), associate professor of chemistry and ecology department. E-mail: denr3@yandex.ru.

Mavrin Gennady — Naberezhnye Chelny Institute (branch) of Kazan Federal University (Naberezhnye Chelny, 423810, prospect Mira, 68/19), PhD (Chem), head of chemistry and ecology department. E-mail: mavrin-g@rambler.ru.

Reference citing

Shaikhiev I.G., Dryakhlov V.O., Galikhanov M.F., Fazullin D.D., Mavrin G.V. Razdelenie vodoneftyanoj emul'sii poliakrilonitril'nymi membranami, modificirovannymi v koronnom razryade [Separation of oil emulsion using polyacrylonitrile membranes, modified by corona discharge]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2020, no. 6, pp. 30 – 37. DOI: 10.30791/1028-978X-2020-6-30-37

 
Porous permeable metal-ceramic SHS-materials based
on steel alloy and natural mineral ilmenite scale

M. S. Kanapinov, G. M. Kashkarov, T. V. Novoselova,
A. A. Sitnikov, N. P. Tubalov, O. V. Yakovleva

The widespread use of road transport dictates the need to create new porous permeable catalytic filter materials with desired properties for cleaning exhaust gases of engines. Recently, composite cermet has taken the lead among catalytic materials for exhaust gas cleaning. When using catalytic materials for cleaning exhaust gases, an unsolved problem now is the problem of substitution in rare-earth metals. In this regard, research aimed at creating new porous permeable catalytic materials with partial or full replacement of materials with rare-earth metals are relevant. Using a method of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS), a heat-resistant (temperature range 400 – 723 K) porous permeable metal-ceramic material (PPMM) with catalytic properties was obtained. In the basis of the charge, powders of scale of alloyed steel, aluminum, natural mineral ilmenite, as well as oxides of aluminum and chromium are used. The basis of the material is the backbone of cermet, reduced iron, chromium oxides and titanium. The physicomechanical and operational properties of the materials obtained were investigated. Increasing the concentration in the mixture of ilmenite by weight increases the pore diameter, porosity, specific surface area; leads to a reduction in harmful exhaust emissions. Increasing the concentration in the mixture of ilmenite by weight increases the pore diameter, porosity, specific surface area; leads to a reduction in harmful exhaust emissions. It is shown that the material obtained is suitable for the catalytic purification of diesel gases from nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and soot. Neutralizing filters made of materials with additives of the natural mineral ilmenite possess catalytic properties and can be successfully used in cleaning the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines.

 

Keywords: ilmenite (titanium-containing mineral), charge, SHS-processes and materials, porous permeable cermet material, structural and phase analysis, purification of exhaust gases of diesel engines.

 

DOI: 10.30791/1028-978X-2020-6-38-46

Kanapinov Medet — Polzunov Altai State Technical University (Russia, 656038, Barnaul, Lenin Ave., 46), graduate student, specialist in the field of materials science. E-mail: mega_bum_90@mail.ru.

Kashkarov Gennady — Polzunov Altai State Technical University (Russia, 656038, Barnaul, Lenin Ave., 46), PhD (Eng), associated professor, specialist in the field of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis. E-mail: kashkarovGM@mail.ru.

Novoselova Tatyana — Polytechnic Institute, branch of the Don State Technical University (Russia, 347904, Taganrog, ul. Petrovskaya, 109-a), senior lecturer, specialist in the field of materials science. E-mail: tatnovos@mail.ru.

Sitnikov Alexander — Polzunoy Altai State Technical University (Russia, 656038, Barnaul, Lenin Ave., 46). Dr Sci (Eng), professor, specialist in the field of material science. E-mail: sitalan@mail.ru.

Tubalov Nikolai — Polzunoy Altai State Technical University (Russia, 656038, Barnaul, Lenin Ave., 46). Dr Sci (Eng), professor, specialist in the areas of material science and self-propagating high-temperature synthesis. E-mail: manemale@mail.ru.

 

Yakovleva Olga — Polzunoy Altai State Technical University (Russia, 656038, Barnaul, Lenin Ave., 46), graduate student, specialist in the field of materials science. E-mail:
manemale@mail.ru.

Reference citing

Kanapinov M.S., Kashkarov G.M., Novoselova T.V., Sitnikov A.A., Tubalov N.P., Yakovleva O.V. Poristye pronicaemye metallokeramicheskie SVS-materialy na osnove okaliny legirovannoj stali i prirodnogo minerala il'menita [Porous permeable metal-ceramic SHS-materials based on steel alloy and natural mineral ilmenite scale]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2020, no. 6, pp. 38 – 46. DOI: 10.30791/1028-978X-2020-6-38-46

 
Palladiuum-based membranes for separation
of high-purity hydrogen

N. R. Roshan, S. V. Gorbunov, E. M. Chistov, F. R. Karelin,
K. A. Kuterbekov, K. Zh. Bekmyrza, E. T. Abseitov

In the present study, using the improved technology, high-quality vacuum-tight foils 10 – 20 µm in thickness were prepared from effective Pd – 6 wt. % In – 0.5 wt. % Ru, Pd – 6 wt. % Ru, Pd – 40  wt. % Cu palladium alloys. Using a combination of deformation and annealing modes, the Pd – 40 wt. % Cu alloy foil consisting of the ordered β-phase (97%) with the CsCl-type structure that exhibits the maximum hydrogen permeability in this system. The mechanical properties and hydrogen permeability of the prepared foils were studied and compared with those of alloy foils 50 µm thickness. The thermal concentration dilatation in hydrogen was studied at different temperatures. Data on the dilatation of palladium-based membranes are of primary importance for designing membrane filtering elements and selection of optimal conditions for their operation, since these data determine the operation life membranes. Based on the Pd – 6 wt. % In – 0.5 wt. % Ru alloy, the Pd – 6 wt. % In – 0.5 wt. % Ru – 1.25 wt. % Co alloy was developed; it is characterized by increased strength characteristics and lower α ↔ β hydride transition temperature.

 

Keywords: high-purity hydrogen, palladium alloys, foil, membranes, hydrogen permeability, physical and chemical properties, thermal concentration dilatation, performance.

DOI: 10.30791/1028-978X-2020-6-47-57

Roshan Nataliya — Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science Russian Academy of Sciences (119991, Moscow, Leninskii pr. 49), senior researcher, expert in platinum metals and alloys. E-mail: roshanat@mail.ru.

Gorbunov Semen — Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science Russian Academy of Sciences (119991, Moscow, Leninskii pr. 49), junior researcher, expert in membrane technology. E-mail: sgorbunov@imet.ac.ru, merciles@mail.ru.

Chistov Evgeny — Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science Russian Academy of Sciences (119991, Moscow, Leninskii pr. 49), senior researcher, expert in hydrogen energy. E-mail: emchistov@yandex.ru.

Karelin Fedor — Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science Russian Academy of Sciences (119991, Moscow, Leninskii pr. 49), senior researcher, expert in rolling of alloys. E-mail: fkarelin@imet.ac.ru.

Kuterbekov Kairat — L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University (010008, Kazakhstan,
Nur-Sultan, Satpaev str., 2), PhD, prof., expert in the field of atomic nucleus and particle physics. E-mail: kkuterbekov@gmail.com.

Bekmyrza Kenzhebatyr — L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University (010008, Kazakhstan, Nur-Sultan, Satpaev str., 2), PhD, assist. prof., expert in physics and computer science. E-mail: kbekmyrza@yandex.kz.

Abseitov Yerbolat — L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University (010008, Kazakhstan, Nur-Sultan, Satpaev str., 2), PhD, prof., expert in hydrogen energy and technology. E-mail: erbolat_1962@mail.ru.

Reference citing

Roshan N.R., Gorbunov S.V., Chistov E.M., Karelin F.R., Kuterbekov K.A., Bekmyrza K.Zh., Abseitov E.T. Membrany iz splavov palladiya dlya polucheniya osobochistogo vodoroda [Palladiuum-based membranes for separation of high-purity hydrogen]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2020, no. 6, pp. 47 – 57. DOI: 10.30791/1028-978X-2020-6-47-57

 
Epoxy composition on the basis of triestertrisulfoimide
saccharin-6-carboxylic acid

E. T. Aslanova

By the interaction of the previously synthesized 2-hydroxypropyl-1,3-bis-estersulfoimide of saccharin-6-carboxylyc acid with alkyl esters of sulfimide of the same acid triestertrisulfoimide saccharin-6-carboxylic acid has been obtained. The composition and structure of the synthesized compound has been confirmed  by data of elemental analysis and IR-spectroscopy. The obtained product has been as a curing agent - plasticizer for industrial epoxide resin ED-20. It has been established that the triestertrisulfoimide of saccharin-6-carboxylic acidis the effective curing agent — plasticizer of epoxide resin ED-20. The curing prosses of composition was studied by a method of differential thermal analysis on derivatograph of system “Paulik-Paulik-Erdey”. It has been revealed according to the obtained data that the synthesized triestertrisulfoimide of saccharin-6-carboxylic acidis combined well with epoxide resin ED-20 but it is cured at hard temperature regime. It has been shown that in the introduction of accelerator UP 606/2 into epoxy composition the curing temperature of composition is decreased, but its thermal, physical -mechanical values are increased.

Keywords: 2-hydroxypropyl-1,3-bis-estersulfoimide, alkyl esters, saccharin-6-carboxylic acid, sulfoimide, epoxy composition.

DOI: 10.30791/1028-978X-2020-6-58-63

Aslanova Elnara Telman kyzy — Institute of Polymer Materials of Azerbaijan National Academy of Science (AZ5004,t.Sumgayit,st.S.Vurgun 124) PhD (Chem), assistant professor, head of laboratory, specialized in the field of obtaining and investigation of heat-resistant polymers and polymer composition materials. E-mail: ipoma@science.az.

Reference citing

Aslanova E.T. Epoksidnaya kompoziciya na osnove triefirotrisul'foimida saharin-6-karbonovoj kisloty [Epoxy composition on the basis of triestertrisulfoimide saccharin-6-carboxylic acid]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2020, no. 6, pp. 58 – 63. DOI: 10.30791/1028-978X-2020-6-58-63

 
Environment safety technology of creating coated
powder of technical ceramics

L. V. Kozyreva, V. V. Kozyrev, I. S. Krekova

Application of fuller materials for creation of the higt-strength coatings on part operating under abrasive wear is one of the promising ways of the resources increasing of road construction, emergency rescue and other types of equipment. However, in their creation process does not always comply with the environmental safety requirements, which leads to negative consequences for the natural environment and human health. The article presents the research work results of authors team created a coated powder by chemical vapor deposition of metal-organic compounds on the alumina particles surface and its applications for the wear-resistant coatings. A method of applying iron-tungsten coating on powder technical ceramics by thermal decomposition of vapors, containing iron pentacarbonyl and tungsten hexacarbonyl, is characterised by sequential application on powder particles of adhesion layer from mixture of iron pentacarbonyl and carbon monoxide in volume ratio of vapours1:5 at temperature of their thermal decomposition of 250 °С, and then surface layer from mixture of tungsten hexacarbonyl and carbon monoxide in volume ratio of vapours1:5 at temperature of their thermal decomposition of 800 °С. Metallization powder materials are carried out in a closed cycle, excluding contact workers with toxic substances and emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere, which ensures the safety of the production process. Plasma coatings obtained with the necessary physical and mechanical properties are obtained, which proves the effectiveness of the employed approach and promotes resource increase of the machines elements, subjected to abrasive wear.

Keywords: chemical vapor deposition, iron-tungsten coating, coated powder, hardening, precision parts of hydraulic systems, environment safety.

 

DOI: 10.30791/1028-978X-2020-6-64-72

Kozyreva Larisa — Tver State Technical University (170026, Tver, Afanasy Nikitin st., 22),Dr Sci (Eng), associate professor, professor of the chair, specialist in the field of chemical vapor deposition of metal-organic compounds. E-mail: larisa.v.k.176@mail.ru.

 

Kozyrev Viktor — Tver State Agricultural Academy (170904, Tver, Marshal Vasilevskij st., Saharovo), Dr Sci (Eng), professor, professor of the chair, specialist in the field of chemical vapor deposition of metal-organic compounds. E-mail: kosyrew-tgsxa@rambler.ru.

 

Krekova Irina — Tver State Technical University (170026, Tver, Afanasy Nikitin st., 22), postgraduate student, specialist in the field of industrial safety. E-mail: inlin46@rambler.ru.

Reference citing

Kozyreva L.V., Kozyrev V.V., Krekova I.S.  Ekologicheski bezopasnaya tekhnologiya polucheniya plakirovannogo poroshka tekhnicheskoj keramiki [Environment safety technology of creating coated powder of technical ceramics]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2020, no. 6, pp. 64 – 72. DOI: 10.30791/1028-978X-2020-6-64-72

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