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Journal Perspektivnye Materialy 

 
Synthesis and research of new luminescent
carbon particles
with high quantum yield of emission
S. A. Kazaryan, V. N. Nevolin, N. F. Starodubtsev

Luminescent carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) with a high mass yield (MY) of carbon material (CM) and quantum emission yield (QY) are synthesized from flour of lentil (LT) grains subjected to thermal carbonization followed by treatment by nitric acid and by hydrothermal (HT) method. Photoluminescence (PL) and optical absorption (OA) techniques were used to study and analyze luminescence, optical, and solubility properties of different types of CNPs as well as their solution properties stability when particles interact with electromagnetic radiation. With carbonization temperature of 400 and 500 °C the MY value of CM-materials reaches 34.6 and 29.7 % respectively. Part of CNPs with particle size less than 50 nm is 7.2 – 12.5 % while the part of particles dissolved in pure water doesn’t exceed 0.8 % of CM-material mass. Special treatment of CM-powders in HNO3 leads to creation of new particles with 81 – 104 % MY and high solubility of CNPs in water. The solubility of CNPs powders is strongly dependent on the temperature and pH value of the solvent, and in some samples it reaches 30.3 g/l at a temperature of 96.9 °C. Most CNPs present a direct band gap of 3.325 – 3.445 eV while carbon cores of these particles contain structural defects and various surface groups of high concentration. When HT-treatment of all types of CNPs in the presence of ammonia or urea, a number of absorption bands are formed in the OA spectra, including bands with maxima of 271 nm (NH1) and 370 nm (NH2). A thorough research was conducted covering structural properties of NH1 and NH2 bands as well as those of PL spectra, values and stability properties of QY emission of different types of CNPs depending on temperature and HT-treatment duration. The best CNP samples possess the maximum QY value of 39.3% when subjected to 406 nm laser excitation, which looks promising in regard to potential practical applications.

 

Keywords: luminescence of nanoparticles, fluorescence of nanoparticles,

luminescence of quantum dots, nanoparticles, carbon nanoparticles, carbon quantum dots, quantum yield of emission of the nanoparticles, synthesis of carbon nanoparticles and quantum dots, luminescence of graphite oxide.

 

DOI: 10.30791/1028-978X-2018-9-5-23

Kazaryan Samvel — Lebedev Physical Institute of Russian Academy of Science (Leninsky prospect 53, 119991, Moscow, Russia), Ph.D. (Phys-Math), head of department, specialist in the field of luminescence of semiconductors, diamonds, nanosized carbons, as well as technology for the synthesis of nanoporous materials and electrochemical supercapacitors. E-mail: skazaryan.fian@gmail.com.

Nevolin Vladimir — Lebedev Physical Institute of Russian Academy of Science (Leninsky prospect 53, 119991, Moscow, Russia), Dr Sci (Phys-Math), professor, assistant director for financial and economic affairs and innovation activities, specialist in the field of physics of thin-film structures. E-mail: nevolin@sci.lebedev.ru.

Starodubtsev Nikolai — Lebedev Physical Institute of Russian Academy of Science (Leninsky prospect 53, 119991, Moscow, Russia), Ph.D. (Phys-Math), head of department, specialist in quantum electronics, semiconductor lasers, optics, nanosized materials technology, and electrochemical supercapacitors. E-mail: nfstaro@gmail.com.

Reference citing

Kazaryan S. A., Nevolin V. N., Starodubtsev N. F. Sintez i issledovanie novyh lyuminesciruyushchih uglerodnyh chastic s vysokim kvantovym vyhodom ehmissii [Synthesis and research of new luminescent carbon particles with high quantum yield of emission]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2017, no. 9, pp. 5 – 23.DOI: 10.30791/1028-978X-2018-9-5-23

Thermophysical properties of polymer-powder mixture
for manufacturing parts from 42CrMo4 steel by metal injection molding method

A. N. Muranov, A. B. Semenov, P. S. Marakhovskiy,
E. Yu. Chutskova, B. I. Semenov

The article is devoted to the investigation of a complex of thermophysical properties of particulate filled metal-polymer composites, called feedstocks, and used in injection molding technology. The review of analytical models for calculation of specific heat, effective thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of such materials is presented. It is noted that the existing calculation models can only be used to calculate the estimated thermal characteristics of the feedstock. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to determine the temperatures characterizing the melting process of polyoxymethylene in the binder of feedstock Catamold 42CrMo4, intended for molding by injection molding of 42CrMo4 steel-analogue steel 38KhMA. The specific heat of this phase transition is determined. An estimated calculation of the temperature dependences of the specific heat, effective thermal conductivity, and thermal diffusivity of the Catamold 42CrMo4 feedstock is carried out. For the calculated values of the thermal diffusivity and the specific heat of the test feedstock, verification was performed with experimental data obtained by laser flash method (LFA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) method. A significant difference in the thermophysical properties of feedstocks from both metals and unfilled polymers is shown. Specific thermophysical properties of feedstocks lead to a difference in the norms of technological casting regimes used in the plastics industry and the norms of technological regimes for feedstock`s casting.

Keywords: MIM technology, injection molding, feedstock, polyoxymethylene, Catamold 42CrMo4, specific heat, thermal conductivity.

 

10.30791/1028-978X-2018-9-24-32

 

Muranov Alexander — Bauman Moscow state technical university (National Research University) (5, 2nd Baumanskaya st., 105005), engineer, specialist in the field of composite materials. E-mail: MuranovAlecs@mail.ru.

Semenov Alexey — Bauman Moscow state technical university (National Research University) (5, 2nd Baumanskaya st., 105005), PhD (Eng), assistant professor of Department Casting Technologies, specialist in the field of foundry alloys and special methods of casting. E-mail: semenov.ab@bk.ru.

Marakhovskiy Petr — Russian State Research Center All-Russian Research Institute of Aviation Materials (17, Radio st., Moscow 105005), engineer 1st category, specialist in the field of thermal properties researching. E-mail: petrbmstu@mail.ru.

Chutskova Evgeniya — Russian State Research Center All-Russian Research Institute of Aviation Materials (17, Radio st., Moscow 105005), engineer, specialist in the field of thermo-physical properties researching. E-mail: chutskova@mail.ru.

Semenov Boris — Bauman Moscow state technical university (National Research University) (5, 2nd Baumanskaya st., 105005), Dr Sci (Eng), professor of Rocket-space composite structures department, specialist in the field of metal matrix composites and special methods of casting. E-mail:
semenovbi@bmstu.ru.

Reference citing

Muranov A. N. , Semenov A. B. , Marakhovskiy P. S. , Chutskova E. Yu. , Semenov B. I.   Teplofizicheskie svojstva polimerno-poroshkovoj smesi dlya izgotovleniya detalej iz stali 42CrMo4 metodom inzhekcionnogo lit'ya [Thermophysical properties of polymer-powder mixture for manufacturing parts from 42CrMo4 steel by metal injection molding method]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2017, no. 9, pp. 24 – 32. DOI: 10.30791/1028-978X-2018-9-24-32

 
Calculation of filament’s volume fraction in a dry,
closely packed roving and constants use for design
of unidirectional composite

 

V. I. Mamonov

 

The paper presents the method, permitting to reveal a minimal cross-sectional area, maximal filament’s (fibers’) volume fraction of a roving and minimal volume fraction of the interfilament gaps of a dry roving, which are independent roving parameters (constants). Each taken separately kind of a roving has it’s only relevant parameters (technical data). Practical application of the method is demonstrated by examples of carbon (CF) and ultrahigh-molecular weight polyethylene (UHMP) rovings’ data determination. The relation of the resin-impregnated and dry roving’s cross-sectional areas depends on the quantity of matrix within the interfilament gaps and represents the constant, which is assigned by the impregnation technology. The rovings’ constants are a base for calculation of the composite components’ reinforcement factors. The constants permit to simplify the roving’s number calculation at prespecified concentration of reinforcement components in the hybrid composites, made of unidirectional fibers. The examples of constants utilization for the calculation of volume, required quantity, density and volume fractions of reinforcement components in the composites, made of unidirectional fibers, are presented. The difference of degree between actual fibers’ volume fractions in the rovings and ideal values, calculated for hexagonal and tetragonal spacing of fibers, is revealed too.

 

Keywords: unidirectional reinforcement; interfilament gaps; minimal cross-sectional area of the roving; minimal volume fraction of the interfilament gaps; maximal filament’s (fibers’) volume fraction; reinforcement factor; hybrid composite; calculation method; rovings’ concentration.

10.30791/1028-978X-2018-9-33-42

Mamonov Vladimir — Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science (Moscow, 119334, Leninsky prospect 49), senior staff scientist, expert in fiber composites experimental investigation. E-mail: Voletic@mail.ru.

Reference citing

Mamonov V. I. Opredelenie ob"ëmnoj doli volokon suhogo rovinga i konstanty parametrov kompozitov iz odnonapravlennyh volokon [Calculation of filament’s volume fraction in a dry, closely packed roving and constants use for design of unidirectional composite]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2017, no. 9, pp. 33 – 42. DOI: 10.30791/1028-978X-2018-9-33-42

 
Epitaxial growth of iron and indium oxides thin films on r-plane sapphire with the regular relief

 

A. E. Muslimov, V. M. Kanevski

 

Results of the processes terrace-step nanostructure formation on the surface misorientated about the R-plane sapphire crystals are given. The possibility of formation of atomically smooth steps with height about 0,34 nm is shown. This size corresponds to interplanar distance of 0,34 nm along the direction [012] in a sapphire crystal. The substrates prepared in such a way were used in an epitaxy of films of Fe2O3 and In2O3. The method of high-temperature oxidation in atmospheric conditions of previously put films of iron and India is used. It is shown that the structural and geometrical similarity of lattices of Fe2O3 and sapphire promotes growth of epitaxial films coaxial a substrate. It is defined that tension arising in the growing In2O3 films in the course of oxidation and a solid-phase epitaxy and also in a consequence of discrepancy of parameters of lattices on border the film-substrate insufficiently for formation of the metastabile rhomboedral phase In2O3 has undressed. The influence of terrace-step nanostructure of a surface of substrates at initial stages of growth of epitaxial films is discussed.

 

Keywords: sapphire, films, diffraction.

DOI: 10.30791/1028-978X-2018-9-43-48

Muslimov Arsen — FSRC Crystallography and Photonics of RAS (Leninskii pr. 59, Moscow, 117333 Russia), PhD (Phys-Math), senior research worker, expert in the field of growth of thin films and their characterization. E-mail amuslimov@mail.ru.

Kanevsky Vladimir — FSRC Crystallography and Photonics of RAS (Leninskii pr. 59, Moscow, 117333 Russia), Dr Sci (Phys-Math), head of laboratory, expert in the field of growth of thin films and their characterization.

Reference citing

Muslimov A. E., Kanevski V. M. EHpitaksial'nyj rost plenok oksidov zheleza i indiya na R-ploskosti sapfira s regulyarnym nanorel'efom [Epitaxial growth of iron and indium oxides thin films on r-plane sapphire with the regular relief]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2017, no. 9, pp. 43 – 48. DOI: 10.30791/1028-978X-2018-9-43-48

 
Composite porous tubular biopolymer matrix of small diameter

E. A. Nemets, V. Yu. Belov, Т. S. Ilina, V. А. Surguchenko,
А. P. Pankina, V. I. Sevastianov

One of the main problems in cardiovascular surgery is the lack of functionally reliable small-diameter (no more than 4 mm) vascular grafts required for coronary artery bypass grafting and peripheral artery and vein bypass grafting. The purpose of this work is the development of a composite biopolymer porous tubular matrix (CPTB matrix) of 2 mm and 4 mm in diameter with adjustable resorption time and physico-mechanical properties close to native blood vessels of the same diameter. The specimens of CPTB matrices with a diameter of 2 mm and 4 mm were produced by means of electrospinning from poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) and gelatin solution in hexafluoroisopropanol. The matrix structure was stabilized by treatment with glutaraldehyde (HA) vapor. It was demonstrated that the best specimen in terms of structure, physico-mechanical properties, and resorption rate, is the matrix obtained with the ratio of poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) : gelatin equal to 1:2 v/v in the solution and additionally cross-linked in HA vapor for 48 hours. The detected slight cytotoxicity of the CBPT matrices developed is easily eliminated by treatment with an aqueous solution containing a set of amino acids. Decreasing the diameter of the substrate rod from 4 mm to 2 mm is accompanied by small changes in the surface structure and the physico-mechanical properties of the CPTB matrix.

 

Key words: porous matrix, electrospinning, gelatin, poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate), blood vessel, glutaraldehyde, Young’s modulus, water swelling, resorption, cytotoxicity.

DOI: 10.30791/1028-978X-2018-9-49-59

Nemets Evgeniy — V.I. Shumakov Federal Research Center of Transplantology and Artificial Organs of the Ministry of Health Care of the Russian Federation (123182, Moscow, Russian Federation, Schukinskaya street, 1), Ph.D., senior research assistant, specialist in the field of biomaterials, tissue engineering, development of blood compatible materials. E-mail: evgnemets@yandex.ru.

Belov Vyacheslav — V.I. Shumakov Federal Research Center of Transplantology and Artificial Organs of the Ministry of Health Care of the Russian Federation (123182, Moscow, Russian Federation, Schukinskaya street, 1), specialist in the field of biomaterial studies and methods of scaffolds formation. E-mail: w.000000000@yandex.ru.

Il’ina Tat’yana — M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University (119991, Moscow, Russian Federation, Leninskie Gory, 1-2), student, Department of medical physics. E-mail:
ts.iljina@physics.msu.ru.

Surguchenko Valentina — V.I. Shumakov Federal Research Center of Transplantology and Artificial Organs of the Ministry of Health Care of the Russian Federation (123182, Moscow, Russian Federation, Schukinskaya street, 1), Ph.D., senior research assistant, specialist in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. E-mail: valent.surg@yandex.ru.

Pankina Anna — Institute of Medico-Biological Research and Technologies (Moscow, Russian Federation, 123557, Moscow, B. Tishinsky Pereulok, 43/20 b. 2), research assistant, specialist in the field of material science and biodegradation. E-mail: amagniya@yandex.ru.

Sevastianov Viktor — V.I. Shumakov Federal Research Center of Transplantology and Artificial Organs of the Ministry of Health Care of the Russian Federation (123182, Moscow, Russian Federation, Schukinskaya street, 1), head of biomedical technologies and tissue engineering division, Dr Sci, professor, specialist in the field of biomaterials, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, drug delivery systems. E-mail: viksev@yandex.ru.

Reference citing

Nemets E. A., Belov V. Yu., Ilina Т. S., Surguchenko V. А., Pankina А. P., Sevastianov V. I. Kompozitnyj poristyj trubchatyj biopolimernyj matriks malogo diametra [Composite porous tubular biopolymer matrix of small diameter]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2017, no. 9, pp. 49 – 59. DOI: 10.30791/1028-978X-2018-9-49-59.

 
Effect of zinc molybdate on fire resistance
and physical-mechanical properties of PVC-plastics

 

Т. А. Borukaev, Z. T. Alakaeva

In a quantitative yield, zinc molybdate was synthesized, which was introduced into the PVC plastic as a flame retardant-modifier. Oxygen index, coke residue, thermophysical and physico-mechanical characteristics of composites PVC-plastic/zinc molybdate in combustion were determined. It was found that the introduction of zinc molybdate in PVC-plastic leads to the production of a difficult combustible material. It is shown that zinc molybdate promotes to the increase in the coke residue of PVC-plastic. In the combustion of a plastic the surface is covered with a denser coke peel, which prevents the incoming of combustible products of the destruction of plasticate into the flame zone. The rates of heat and smoke evolution in the combustion of PVC-plastics containing the zinc molybdate and their thermal stability are determined. It has been found that the introduction of zinc molybdate in PVC-plastic reduces the smoke formation during the burning of plasticate and increases its thermal stability. This is due to the effect of zinc molybdate on the combustion and dehydrochlorination of PVC plasticate. The zinc molybdate changes the thermophysical parameters of the combustion process of PVC-plastic and prevents the release of hydrogen chloride during its destruction. At the same time, the amount of smoke, the heat of combustion of PVC-containing zinc molybdate, is lower than that of the starting material. It is shown that zinc molybdate enables to partially or completely replace the toxic fire retardant Sb2O3 and at the same time maintain a balance of smoke formation, fire resistance and thermal stability. It was found that the introduction of zinc molybdate in PVC-plastic leads to an improvement in the basic physico-mechanical and technological properties of the compound. In particular, an insignificant increase in the density of PVC-plasticate was found within the permissible values, i.e. the upper limit does not exceed 1,500 g/cm3. In this case, the stress and the relative strain of failure of the PVC-plastic compound upon the introduction of zinc molybdate also increase, which is due to a decrease in the defectiveness of the compound structure when the flame retardant-modifier is introduced.

Keywords: zinc molybdate, polyvinylchloride, plastic, fire resistance, thermostability, thermophysical and mechanical properties.

DOI: 10.30791/1028-978X-2018-9-60-67

Borukaev Timur — Kabardino-Balkarian State University named after H.M. Berbekov (Nalchik, KBR, 360004, Chernishevskiy St., 173), Dr Sci (Chem), professor of department of Organic chemistry and macromolecular compounds, specialist in chemistry and physics of polymers and composite materials. E-mail: boruk-chemical@mail.ru.

Alakaeva Zoya — Kabardino-Balkarian State University named after H.M. Berbekov (Nalchik, KBR, 360004, Chernishevskiy St., 173), PhD (Chem), senior researcher, department of Research and innovation activities, specialist in the field of polymer composite materials. E-mail: alakaevazoya@mail.ru.

Reference citing

Borukaev Т. А., Alakaeva Z. T. Vliyanie molibdata cinka na ognestojkie i fiziko-mekhanicheskie svojstva PVH-plastikata [Effect of zinc molybdate on fire resistance and physical-mechanical properties of PVC-plastics]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2017, no. 9, pp. 60 – 67. DOI: 10.30791/1028-978X-2018-9-60-67

 
Creation of highly porous material with a hierarchical
structure by sintering of nickel nanopowder using ammonium bicarbonate as space holder

 

A. G. Gnedovets, A. B. Ankudinov, V. A. Zelenskii, M. I. Alymov

 

The possibility of obtaining permeable highly porous materials based on nanopowders of nickel using ammonium bicarbonate as a space holder is shown. In the fabrication of porous samples, a sintering-evaporation process (SEP) was carried out, in which a thermally unstable pore former was decomposed and distilled from the compacts during preheating before sintering. The resulting highly porous nickel exhibits a pronounced hierarchical structure. The size of macropores formed by large particles of space holder reaches tens of microns, and pore walls consisting of thin layers of partially sintered nickel particles have a developed surface and include pores of submicron sizes. The permeability of the material is ensured by the fact that macropores are interconnected by windows of micron sizes. Strength characteristics of highly porous nickel based on nanopowders are at the level of the corresponding parameters of bulk porous materials obtained by sintering micron size metal powders using pore-forming agents.

Key words: highly porous materials, hierarchical structure, nickel nanopowder, space holder, powder metallurgy, sintering, synthesis, permeability, mechanical properties.

DOI: 10.30791/1028-978X-2018-9-68-78

Gnedovets Alexey — Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Russian Academy of Sciences (119334, Moscow, Leninsky pr., 49), PhD (phys.-math.), senior scientist, specialist in the field of physics, chemistry and modeling of processes of coating deposition, synthesis of nanoparticles and nanomaterials. E-mail: agg@imet.ac.ru.

Ankudinov Alexey — Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Russian Academy of Sciences (119334, Moscow, Leninsky pr., 49), scientist, specialist in the field of materials science and powder metallurgy. E-mail: a-58@bk.ru.

Zelenskii Viktor — Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Russian Academy of Sciences (119334, Moscow, Leninsky pr., 49), PhD (phys.-math.), leading scientist, specialist in the field of powder metallurgy and technology of synthesis of ultrafine powder materials. E-mail: zelensky55@bk.ru.

Alymov Mikhail — Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Russian Academy of Sciences (119334, Moscow, Leninsky pr., 49); Institute of Structural Macrokinetics and Materials Science, Russian Academy of Sciences (142432 Moscow Region, Chernogolovka, Academician Osipyan str., 8), corresponding member of RAS, DrSci (eng.), professor, head of laboratory (IMET), director (ISMAN), leading specialist in the field of surface science, powder metallurgy and nanomaterials. E-mail: alymov@imet.ac.ru.

Reference citing

Gnedovets A. G., Ankudinov A. B., Zelenskii V. A., Alymov M. I. Sozdanie vysokoporistogo materiala s ierarhicheskoj strukturoj metodom spekaniya nanoporoshka nikelya s ispol'zovaniem bikarbonata ammoniya v kachestve poroobrazovatelya [Creation of highly porous material with a hierarchical structure by sintering of nickel nanopowder using ammonium bicarbonate as space holder]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2017, no. 9, pp. 68 – 78. DOI: 10.30791/1028-978X-2018-9-68-78

 
Gradient absorber of electromagnetic waves

K. L. Devin, A. N. Borcov, E. A. Devina

On the basis of the studies carried out it has been shown that it is possible to obtain a gradient absorber of electromagnetic waves small thickness having the efficient level of absorption of an electromagnetic radiation in a frequency range from 10,0 to 37,5 GHz in which values of  coefficient of reflection do not exceed minus 15 dB is shown. It have been showed the fact of gradient nature of distribution of concentration of a conducting excipient in material from minimum value on an external surface to maximal on internal is elicited. It is found that it is possible to use the developed absorber of electromagnetic waves the without additional metallization of an internal surface expense of the compacted surface layer which is formed at a formation stage that allows to simplify use of material in designs and reduce her weight. Results of comparison of frequency dependences of coefficient of reflection of the developed absorber of electromagnetic waves with materials, similar on structure, with uniform distribution on the volume of electroconductive filler are presented.

 

Keywords: absorber of electromagnetic waves, polyurethane foam, carbon fiber, reflection coefficient, radiophysical properties, electromagnetic radiation.

DOI: 10.30791/1028-978X-2018-9-79-84

Devin Konstantin — Joint-Stock Company The Engineering and Marketing Center of the Vega Corporation (Moscow, 125315, 14 Baltijskaya st.), PhD, head of laboratory, specialist in the field of electrodynamics, composite radio materials, methods and means of measurement of radio materials. Е-mail: yandex81@yandex.ru.

Borcov Alexander — Joint-Stock Company The Engineering and Marketing Center of the Vega Corporation (Moscow, 125315, 14 Baltijskaya st.), PhD, deputy head of Department, specialist in the field of electrodynamics, composite radio materials, methods and means of measurement of radio materials. Е-mail: borcov@imc-vega.ru.

Devina Elena — Joint-Stock Company The Engineering and Marketing Center of the Vega Corporation (Moscow, 125315, 14 Baltijskaya st.), head of sector, specialist in the field of materials science, composite materials, radiophysical properties of materials, electromagnetic compatibility. Е-mail: leno4kavl@mail.ru.

Reference citing

Devin K. L., Borcov A. N., Devina E. A. Gradientnyj poglotitel' ehlektromagnitnyh voln [Gradient absorber of electromagnetic waves]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2017, no. 9, pp. 79 – 84. DOI: 10.30791/1028-978X-2018-9-79-84