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Journal Perspektivnye Materialy 

 
Prospects of application of self-healing materials and technologies based on them

 

N. N. Sitnikov, I. A. Khabibullina, V. I. Mashchenko,
R. N. Rizakhanov

 

Self-healing (self-restoring) materials are of increasing interest, but large-scale industrial use of such materials and technologies based on them is not observed. There are single successful applications of such technologies, most ideas are presented in the form of prototypes for non-biological materials and systems. Self-restoring of the initial characteristics of materials is most successfully realized in polymers and compositions based on them. The most applicable and commercially demanded selfrepairing materials are polymer coatings. The basic mechanisms of self-healing are briefly presented and the technologies based on them are considered. The data on polymers, cements, ceramics, metals and composite materials are analyzed. Features of physical and chemical principles of initial characteristics obtaining by self-restoring effect are revealed and the prospects of practical application of self-healing materials and technologies on their basis are considered.

 

Keywords: self-restoring, self-healing, polymers, ceramics, cements, concretes, metals, composite materials, encapsulated systems.

Sitnikov Nikolay — Federal State Unitary Enterprise Keldysh Research Center (Onezhskaya St., 8, Moscow, Russian Federation, 125438), National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Kashirskoe shosse, 31, Moscow, Russian Federation, 115409), PhD (Eng), senior research fellow, specialist in the field of nanotechnology and materials with shape memory effect. E-mail: sitnikov_nikolay@mail.ru.

 

Khabibullina Irina — Federal State Unitary Enterprise Keldysh Research Center (Onezhskaya St., 8, Moscow, Russian Federation, 125438), 3 category engineer, specialist in the field of nanotechnology. E-mail: irina-zaletova@mail.ru.

 

Mashchenko Vladimir — Moscow Region State University (Radio St., 10A, Moscow, Russian Federation, 105005), PhD (Chem), senior research fellow, specialist in the field of nanotechnology and polymer. E-mail: mashchenko@genebee.msu.su.

 

Rizakhanov Razhudin — Federal State Unitary Enterprise Keldysh Research Center (Onezhskaya St., 8, Moscow, Russian Federation, 125438), PhD (phys-math), head of Department, specialist in the field of nanotechnology. E-mail: rn_rizakhanov@kerc.msk.ru.

Reference citing

Sitnikov N. N., Khabibullina I. A., Mashchenko V. I., Rizakhanov R. N. Ocenka perspektiv primeneniya samovosstanavlivayushchihsya materialov i tekhnologij na ih osnove [Prospects of application of self-healing materials and technologies based on them]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2018, no. 2, pp. 5 – 16.
DOI: 10.30791/1028-978X-2018-2-5-16.

Gamma irradiation effect to MOS structures
with thin Al2O3 oxide

 

N. M. Romanov, S. A. Mokrushina

 

The effect of gamma irradiation with a dose up to 25 Mrad to the behavior of the capacitance–voltage characteristics of Al/Al2O3/p-Si capacitor structures were investigated. Thin dielectric layers of Al2O3 with thicknesses 5 nm, 10 nm and 15 nm by streamlined atomic layer deposition technology from commercially available reagents were obtained. The Al/Al2O3/p-Si capacitor structures were exposed by gamma rays from cesium sources with energy 661 keV. Analysis of changes capacitance–voltage characteristics were shown. Formation of resultant positive space charge and absence of generation surface states were shown. Also was found that gamma quanta do not create new defect states in a thin dielectric Al2O3 film. Consecutive annealing effect to irradiated structures are study in N2 atmosphere at temperatures 350 ˚C and 400 ˚C respectively. Analysis of annealing allow to make an approximation of the voltage dose dependences changes in the middle of band gape by the sum of three exponential function, each of which corresponds to a certain type of traps in the dielectric.

 

Keywords: gamma irradiation, high-k dielectrics, alumina (Al2O3), capacitance–voltage profiling (C–V profiling), annealing.

 

Romanov Nikolai — St.-Petersburg Polytechnic University of Peter the Great St. (St. Petersburg, 195220, Polytechnic Street, 29), graduate student, category engineer. E–mail: nikromanov.90@gmail.com.

 

Mokrushina Svetlana — St.-Petersburg State Electrotechnical University (LETI, St.-Petersburg 197022, Prof. Popova Street, 5), graduate student, engineer. Email: svetilnik_84@mail.ru.

Reference citing

Romanov N. M., Mokrushina S. A. Vliyanie gamma-oblucheniya na MDP-struktury s tonkim oksidom Al2O3 [Gamma irradiation effect to MOS structures with thin Al2O3 oxide]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2018, no. 2, pp. 17 – 24.
DOI: 10.30791/1028-978X-2018-2-17-22.

 
Shear strength of cylindrical titanium implant – plastic system

 

A. I. Mamayev, V. A. Mamayeva, V. I. Kalita, D. I. Komlev,
A. A. Radyuk, A. Yu. Ivannikov, A. B. Mikhaylova, A. S. Baikin,
M. A. Sevostyanov, N. A. Amel’chenko

Connection “titanic implant – a bone fabric” have analyzed on an example of a modelling composite material “cylindrical titanic implant – plastic” where plastic with shift durability of 62.3 MPa simulates a bone fabric. Shear strength of system “cylindrical titanic implant – plastic” raises with increase macro- and a micro relief of a titanic surface is consecutive among, smooth, processed by an abrasive, with the three-dimensional capillary-porous titanic (TCP Ti) coating, with TCP Ti coating and microplasma oxidation (MPO): 2.9 MPa, 29 MPa, 44.65 MPa, 57.27 MPa. The realization of shear strength of plastic in this connection raises about 3 % to 92 %. Analysis of the shear strength of coatings in the conduct of microimpland oxidation in phosphate and silicate electrolytes with additives of hydroxyapatite, gluconate or calcium citrate was carried out. The best result of 57.27 MPa was obtained using a phosphate electrolyte containing synthetic hydroxyapatite. In this case, when the samples were subjected to shear, the destruction of the samples occurred over the plastic simulating the bone tissue. In samples with a three-dimensional capillary-porous titanium coating at an average shear strength of 44.65 MPa, the fracture surface passes along the tops of the coating.

 

Keywords: modelling composite material “cylindrical titanic implant – plastic”, shear strength, three-dimensional capillaryporous titanic coating, a plasma spraying, microplasma oxidation.

Mamaev Anatolij — Scientific Innovation Educational Center (NIOTS) “Microplasma technology” (Tomsk, Russia 634050, pr. Lenina, 36), Dr Sci (Chem), professor of physical chemistry specialty, Director of the National Research Tomsk State University, specialist in the development of measuring, research and technological equipment and technologies for the formation of coatings. E-mail: atte@mail.tomsknet.ru.

 

Mamaeva Vera — Scientific Innovation Educational Center (NIOTS) “Microplasma technology” of the National Research Tomsk State University (634021 Tomsk, Akademicheskiy pr., 8/8, of. 18), Dr Sci (Eng), senior researcher, specialist in the field of physical and chemical research of the formation of nanostructured nonmetallic inorganic coatings. E-mail: vam@ultranet.tomsk.ru.

 

Kalita Vasilii — Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Sciences of Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow, 119334, Leninsky Prospect, 49), Dr Sci (Eng), head of laboratory, specialist in the field of plasma spraying. E-mail: vkalita@imet.ac.ru.

 

Komlev Dmitrii — Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Sciences of Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow, 119334, Leninsky Prospect, 49), Ph.D., leading researcher, specialist in the field of plasma spraying. E-mail: imet-lab25@yandex.ru.

 

Ivannikov Alexander — Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Sciences of Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow, 119334, Leninsky Prospect, 49), Ph.D., senior researcher, specialist in the field of plasma spraying. E-mail: imet-lab25@yandex.ru.

 

Radiuk Aleksei — Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Sciences of Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow, 119334, Leninsky Prospect, 49), junior researcher, specialist in the field of plasma spraying. E-mail: imet-lab25@yandex.ru.

 

Mihajlova Aleksandra — Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Sciences of Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow, 119334, Leninsky Prospect, 49), Ph.D., senior researcher, specialist in the field of X-ray analysis. E-mail: sasham1@mail.ru.

 

Baikin Alexander — Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Sciences of Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow, 119334, Leninsky Prospect, 49), scientific researcher, specialist in the field of mechanical testing of materials. E-mail: baikinas@mail.ru.

 

Sevostianov Mihail — Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Sciences of Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow, 119334, Leninsky Prospect, 49), Ph.D., head of laboratory, specialist in mechanical testing and development of medical materials. E-mail: cmakp@mail.ru.

 

Amelchenko Nikolay — Reshetnev Siberian State University of Science and Technology, (Prospekt to them. newspapers Krasnoyarsk worker, 31, Krasnoyarsk 660037), Ph.D., associate professor, specialist in the field of plasma spraying. E-mail: nikalam@mail.ru.

Reference citing

Mamayev A. I., Mamayeva V. A., Kalita V. I., Komlev D. I., Radyuk A. A., Ivannikov A. Yu., Mikhaylova A. B., Baikin A. S., Sevostyanov M. A., Amel’chenko N. A. Sdvigovaya prochnost' sistemy cilindricheskij titanovyj implantat – plastmassa [Shear strength of cylindrical titanium implant – plastic system]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2018, no. 2, pp. 25 – 35.
DOI: 10.30791/1028-978X-2018-2-25-35.

 
Use of tetrafluoroethylene telomeres for receiving
a fluorine-containing hydrophobic silica fabriс

 

G. A. Kichigina, P. P. Kushch, E. A. Krivonogova,
D. P. Kiryukhin, V. G. Dorohov, V. V. Barelko

 

Fluoroplastic varnished cloths is a fiberglass fabric that has been repeatedly impregnated with fluoroplastic suspension (F-4D), which has undergone thermal treatment, containing ~ 60 – 80 % fluoroplastic [1]. In this work, silica fabric KT-11-13 was used as the basis for the production of varnished cloths with a low content of fluoropolymer, and radiation-synthesized solutions of tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) telomeres with general formula A – (CF2 – CF2)n – B in acetone (n ~ 15, A, B — CH3COCH2, H, CH3) and pentafluorochlorobenzene (n ~ 70, A, B — C6F5, Cl) were used as a impregnating medium. A hydrophobic material containing 5 – 10 % fluoropolymer was obtained, the technique of pretreatment of industrial fabric from technical lubricant was worked out, and several methods for its removal were suggested. A comparative analysis of the use of silica and aluminoborosilicate fabrics as a basis was made, and the feasibility of using TFE telomers in аcetone and pentafluorochlorobenzene was evaluated. The presence of a fluoropolymer coating providing hydrophobicity of silica fabric is indicated by IR absorption spectra.

 

Keywords: tetrafluoroethylene, telomer, superwaterproof cover.

Kichigina Galina — Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (142432, Chernogolovka, Academician Semenov avenue 1), Ph.D (Chem), senior researcher, specialist in radiation chemistry, cryogenic chemistry, synthesis and use of fluoropolymers. E-mail: kga@icp.ac.ru.

 

Kushch Pavel — Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (142432, Chernogolovka, Academician Semenov avenue 1), Ph.D (Chem), senior researcher, specialist in radiation chemistry, cryogenic chemistry, synthesis and use of fluoropolymers. E-mail: kрр@icp.ac.ru.

 

Kiryukhin Dmitry — Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (142432, Chernogolovka, Academician Semenov avenue 1), Dr. Sci (Chem), head of laboratory, specialist in radiation chemistry, cryogenic chemistry, synthesis and use of fluoropolymers. E-mail: kir@icp.ac.ru.

 

Barelko Viktor — Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (142432, Chernogolovka, Academician Semenov avenue 1), Dr.Sci (Chem), professor, principal researcher, specialist in physics of combustion and explosion, macrokinetics of chemical processes, fundamental and applied catalysis. E-mail: barelko@icp.ac.ru.

 

Dorohov Viktor — Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (142432, Chernogolovka, Academician Semenov avenue 1), Ph.D (Chem), head of laboratory, specialist in fundamental and applied catalysis, chemistry of polymers. E-mail: vicd@icp.ac.ru.

 

Krivonogova Evgeniya — N.P.Ogarev Mordovia State University (68 Bolshevistskaya Str., Saransk 430005, Republic of Mordovia, Russia), student. E-mail: zhenya.krivonogova@mail.ru.

Reference citing

Kichigina G. A., Kushch P. P., Krivonogova E. A., Kiryukhin D. P., Dorohov V. G., Barelko V. V. Ispol'zovanie telomerov tetraftorehtilena dlya polucheniya ftorsoderzhashchej gidrofobnoj kremnezemnoj tkani [Use of tetrafluoroethylene telomeres for receiving a fluorine-containing hydrophobic silica fabriс]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2018, no. 2, pp. 36 – 45.
DOI: 10.30791/1028-978X-2018-2-36-45.

 
Influence of graphitization conditions on structural
and mechanical properties
of polyacrylonitrile-based carbon fibers

 

V. M. Samoilov, D. B. Verbets, I. A. Bubnenkov, N. N. Steparyova,
A. V. Nikolaeva, E. A. Danilov, D. V. Ponomareva, E. I. Timoshchuk

 

In the present study, influence of conditions of graphitization under 3000°C on crystal structure and properties of high-modulus polyacrylonitrile-based carbon fibers (CF) was assessed. It was shown that increase of treatment temperature of CF from 1400 to 3000 °C leads to decrease in tensile strength and increase in Young’s modulus. However, increase in graphitization (3000°C) winding rate from 10 to 300 m/h lead to opposite effect. Crystal structure of the CF was assessed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. It was shown that increase of treatment temperature from 1400 to 3000°C leads to decrease in interlayer spacing d002, and increase in crystallite size Lc; ID/IG (rate of D and G mode Raman intensities) decrease, which is characteristic of increase in CF crystallite order. Increase in graphitization (3000°C) winding rate, on the contrary, leads to small increase in d002, decrease in Lc, and no significant change of ID/IG. Detailed analysis of (002) diffraction peak profiles showed that, unlike CF obtained at 10 m/h graphitization (3000°C) winding rate, those obtained at higher rates consist of at least two distinct structures of different graphitization degrees. Further treatment of these CF at 2650°C in static conditions lead to significant decrease in d002 and increase in Lc. Studies of ID/IG pointed out that radial inhomogeneity of CF structure increases at higher graphitization winding rates and should be associated with low speed of heat transport through the filament cross-section. It was concluded that high winding rates of CF graphitization lead to degradation of structural and mechanical properties.

 

Keywords: carbon fiber, graphitization, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, microstructure.

Samoilov Vladimir — Research Institute for Graphite-Based Structural Materials “NIIgrafit” (2 Elektrodnaya st., 111524, Moscow), Dr Sci (Eng), head of department, area of research: chemical technology of carbon-based materials and graphene. E-mail: vsamoylov@niigrafit.org.

 

Verbets Dmitriy — Research Institute for Graphite-Based Structural Materials “NIIgrafit” (2 Elektrodnaya st., 111524, Moscow), senior research fellow, area of research: technology and characterization of carbon fibers. E-mail: dimin2007@yandex.ru.

 

Bubnenkov Igor’ — Research Institute for Graphite-Based Structural Materials “NIIgrafit” (2 Elektrodnaya st., 111524, Moscow), Dr Sci (Eng), deputy head of department, area of research: technology and characterization of carbon-and silicon carbide-based materials. E-mail: ibybnenkov@niigrafit.org.

 

Steparyova Nina — Research Institute for Graphite-Based Structural Materials “NIIgrafit” (2 Elektrodnaya st., 111524, Moscow), senior research fellow, area of research: materials characterization via X-ray diffraction, technology of carbon- and silicon carbide-based materials. E-mail: ibybnenkov@niigrafit.org.

 

Nikolaeva Anastasiya — Research Institute for Graphite-Based Structural Materials “NIIgrafit” (2 Elektrodnaya st., 111524, Moscow), PhD (Eng), senior research fellow, area of research: manufacturing of graphene platelets, their characterization, manufacturing of graphene-based materials. E-mail: anikolaeva@niigrafit.org.

 

Danilov Egor — Research Institute for Graphite-Based Structural Materials “NIIgrafit” (2 Elektrodnaya st., 111524, Moscow), senior research fellow, deputy head of department, area of research: physics, chemistry and physical chemistry of carbon materials and nanomaterials. E-mail: danilovegor1@gmail.com.

 

Ponomareva Darya — Research Institute for Graphite-Based Structural Materials “NIIgrafit” (2 Elektrodnaya st., 111524, Moscow), research fellow, area of research: manufacturing of graphene platelets, their characterization; manufacturing of particle-reinforced polymer materials. E-mail: ma9lkova@gmail.com.

 

Timoshchuk Elena — Research Institute for Graphite-Based Structural Materials “NIIgrafit” (2 Elektrodnaya st., 111524, Moscow), PhD (Eng), research fellow, area of research: manufacturing of graphene platelets, their characterization. E-mail: el.timoshchuk@mail.ru.

Reference citing

Samoilov V. M., Verbets D. B., Bubnenkov I. A., Steparyova N. N., Nikolaeva A. V., Danilov E. A., Ponomareva D. V., Timoshchuk E. I. Vliyanie uslovij grafitacii pri 3000 °S na kristallicheskuyu strukturu i svojstva vysokomodul'nyh uglerodnyh volokon na osnove poliakrilonitrila [Influence of graphitization conditions on structural and mechanical properties of polyacrylonitrile-based carbon fibers]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2018, no. 2, pp. 46 – 59.
DOI: 10.30791/1028-978X-2018-2-46-59.

 
Conditions for the production of active aluminum oxide, meeting the requirements of prospective chloride technology

 

T. N. Vetchinkina

 

The features of the dehydration and recrystallization processes were studied on samples of aluminum hydroxide obtained by carbonization of the aluminate solution at 40 °C and isolated by Bayer’s decomposition. The main differences in the structural transformations of these samples consist in the individual sequence of the formation of polymorphic modifications of oxides in the dehydration of each aluminum hydroxide. The structural transformations of these types of hydroxide and the dynamics of the polymorphism of the decomposition products were studied in the temperature range 100 – 1000 °С. Data from crystallo-optical, X-ray phase and thermogravimetric methods of analysis showed that the recrystallization of the structure occurs more slowly when calcining the carbonized aluminum hydroxide than in the decomposition method. It is determined that with the dehydration of the hydroxide, sodium aluminosilicate and carbon reduce the rate of formation of high-temperature modifications of alumina. The reactivity of aluminum oxide obtained by thermal decomposition of chemically pure sulfuric, hydrochloric and nitric acid crystalline salts of aluminum salts is determined not only by the phase composition but also by the nature of the starting material. Despite the general morphology of the process of formation of aluminum oxide during the decomposition of the investigated crystalline hydrates, the formation of the phase composition of Al2O3 occurs at different temperatures and at different rates. Structural rearrangements during the decomposition of salts occur in the solid phase, which determines the total porosity and the specific surface area of each type of aluminum oxide. A study of the polymorphism of black alumina containing iron and silicon impurities was also carried out on samples obtained after leaching of the mineral part of the carbonaceous rocks with sulfuric, hydrochloric and nitric acids in the temperature range 100 – 1000 °C. The inhibitory effect of impurities and a reducing agent on the formation of high-temperature structural modifications of the oxide aluminum in the process of heat treatment of sulfuric, hydrochloric and nitric acid crystalline hydrates of aluminum salts.

 

Key words: oxides, hydroxides and crystalline hydrates of aluminum, process of polymorphic transformations, products of calcination, morphology, formation of aluminum oxide.

Vetchinkina Tatiana — Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science of Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow, 119334, Leninsky Prospekt, 49), PhD (Eng), leading researcher, specialist in the field of physical chemistry and aluminum technology. E-mail: tvetchinkina@yandex.ru.

Reference citing

Vetchinkina T. N. Usloviya polucheniya aktivnogo oksida alyuminiya, otvechayushchego trebovaniyam perspektivnoj hlornoj tekhnologii [Conditions for the production of active aluminum oxide, meeting the requirements of prospective chloride technology]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2018, no. 2, pp. 60 – 71.
DOI: 10.30791/1028-978X-2018-2-60-71

 

Properties of electrolytic alloy based on silver

 

V. I. Balakai, A. V. Arzumanova, A. V. Starunov, I. V. Balakai

 

The composition of the ditsiatnoargentatnogo electrolyte for the application of the silver-antimony-boron alloy to electrical contacts and the method of preparation of this electrolyte are given in the article. As a boron-containing additive, potassium dicarbonounecarborate was used in the electrolyte. The physicomechanical properties of the electrolytic silver-antimony-boron alloy (microhardness, wear resistance in the conditions of boundary friction with steel St 45 at a load of 5 N, the specific electric resistance, the transient electrical resistance at a current in the chain of 0,025 – 1,000 A and the load on the point contact 0,05 – 1,00 N, internal stresses, adhesion to the base of copper and its alloys, porosity at a coating thickness of 3 μm, the spreading coefficient of the solder, the current yield of the alloy) depending on the composition of the electrolyte, the concentration of components in the electrolysis, the conditions of electrolysis and the heat treatment temperature of the coating. The composition of the alloy and the comparative characteristics of the physical-mechanical properties of the silver-antimony-boron alloy, silverantimony and pure electrolyte silver are given. The possibility of using in the radio engineering, electrical engineering and instrumentation industry as a coating for electrical contacts is shown, which not only possess high electrical characteristics and solderability, but also reliability, durability, i.e. high wear resistance, corrosion resistance, microhardness.

 

Keywords: wear resistance, corrosion resistance, microhardness, internal stress, porosity, adhesion, resistivity and transient electric resistance, electrical contacts, silver alloy, antimony, boron, physical and mechanical properties, electroplating.

Balakai Vladimir — Platov South-Russian State Polytechnic University (NPI), (346428, Rostov region, Novocherkassk, Enlightenment st., 132), Dr Sci (Eng), professor, Dean of the Technologic faculty, specialist in electrolytic deposition of metals, alloys and composite coatings. E-mail: balakaivi@rambler.ru.

 

Arzumanova Anna — Platov South-Russian State Polytechnic University (NPI), (346428, Rostov region, Novocherkassk, Enlightenment st., 132), PhD (Eng), associate professor, department of standardization, certification and quality management, specialist in electrolytic deposition of metals, alloys and composite coatings. E-mail: arzumanova@yandex.ru.

 

Starunov Aleksey — Platov South-Russian State Polytechnic University (NPI), (346428, Rostov region, Novocherkassk, Enlightenment st., 132), graduate student, specialist in electrolytic deposition of metals, alloys and composite coatings. E-mail: staryn800@rambler.ru.

 

Balakai Ilya — Platov South-Russian State Polytechnic University (NPI), (346428, Rostov region, Novocherkassk, Enlightenment st., 132), master of science, specialist in electrolytic deposition of metals, alloys and composite coatings. E-mail: IlyaBALAKAY@sca.com.

Reference citing

Balakai V. I., Arzumanova A. V., Starunov A. V., Balakai I. V. Svojstva ehlektroliticheskogo splava na osnove serebra [Properties of electrolytic alloy based on silver]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2018, no. 2, pp. 72 – 80.

DOI: 10.30791/1028-978X-2018-2-72-80.