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Journal Perspektivnye Materialy 

 
Effect of chemical composition variability on phase composition and structure of beta-solidifying TiAl-alloy in as-cast condition

P. V. Panin, N. A. Nochovnaya, E. A. Lukina, A. S. Kochetkov

The regularities of the effect of the variation in the chemical composition of the new Russian b-solidifying TiAl-alloy (Ti – 44,5 Al – 2 V – 1 Nb – 2 Cr/1 Zr – (0 – 0,1 Gd, at.%) within the chromium content from 1.5 to 2.5 at% (2.0 – 3.5 mass %) and zirconium from 0.5 to 1.5 at % (1.2 – 3.5 mass %),  as well as the effect of gadolinium microalloying on the phase composition and the structure of ingots have been studied. The ingots were obtained using double vacuum-arc remelting with the subsequent vacuum-induction melting and pouring the melt into the steel chill mold at the melting-casting unit with a cold crucible. It is shown that 0.1 at.% gadolinium microaddition results in decreasing of the average size of the macro grains from 3000 ± 500 μm to 400 ± 80 μm in the peripheral part of the ingots after the first remelting. It was found that the phase composition of TiAl-alloy compositions with Cr and Zr is represented by three main phases: g-TiAl, a2-Ti3Al and b-phase. The volume fraction of b-phase does not exceed 2 – 3 in ingots containing Zr, while reaches up to 5-6% in ingots containing Cr. It was revealed that the microstructure of the ingots of all studied chemical compositions has a lamellar morphology.  Sprouting of lamellar colonies through the grain boundaries was noted for ingots containing Zr.

Keywords: intermetallic TiAl alloy, ingot, chemical composition, structure, phase composition.

DOI: 10.30791/1028-978X-2018-12-5-14

Panin Pavel — All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Aviation Materials (FSUE VIAM, 105005, Moscow, Radio street, 17), PhD (Eng), associate professor, leading researcher, specialist in the field of high-temperature titanium alloys. E-mail: PaninPaV@yandex.ru.

Nochovnaya Nadezhda — All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Aviation Materials (FSUE VIAM, 105005, Moscow, Radio street, 17), Dr Sci (Eng), deputy chief of laboratory, specialist in the field of high-temperature titanium alloys.

Lukina Elena — Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University) (NRU MAI, 125993, Moscow, Volokolamskoe shosse, 4), PhD (Eng), associate professor of department Material Science and Technology of Materials Treatment, specialist in the field of high-temperature and biocompatible titanium alloys and their intermetallics. E-mail: lukinaea@mati.ru.

Kochetkov Aleksey — All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Aviation Materials (FSUE VIAM, 105005, Moscow, Radio street, 17), PhD (Eng), head of sector, specialist in the field of titanium alloys casting.

Reference citing

Panin P. V., Nochovnaya N. A., Lukina E. A., Kochetkov A. S. Vliyanie variativnosti himicheskogo sostava na fazovyj sostav i strukturu beta-zatverdevayushchego TiAl-splava v litom sostoyanii. [Effect of chemical composition variability on phase composition and structure of beta-solidifying TiAl-alloy in as-cast condition]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2018, no. 12, pp. 5 – 14. DOI: 10.30791/1028-978X-2018-12-5-14

Damage of aluminum samples with alumina ceramic coating under pulsed energy flows of various nature

V. A. Gribkov, A. S. Demin, N. A. Epifanov, E. E. Kazilin,
S. V. Latyshev, S. A. Maslyaev, E. V. Morozov, I. P. Sasinovskaya,
V. P. Sirotinkin, K. N. Minkov, M. Paduch

The damageability of alumina ceramic coating on the aluminum substrate under the influence of concentrated energy fluxes of different nature and pulse duration have been investigated. Laser radiation in the free-running mod (with pMower density q = 105 – 2·106 W/cm2 and pulse duration t  = 0.7 ms) and the Q-switched mod (q = 107 – 108 W / cm2, t = 80 ns), as well as beam-plasma effects at q = 107 – 109 W/cm2, t = 50 – 100 ns were used as pulsed heat load. It is shown that under action of millisecond and nanosecond pulsed laser radiation on the semitransparent ceramic coating its damage is caused by the partial destruction and peeling of the ceramic layer from the metal substrate. The mechanisms of observed damageability are determined. The threshold laser radiation flux density at which the coating is damaged by the peeling mechanism have been experimentally estimated. The temperature distribution in the surface layer of the samples have been calculated by numerical simulation and it have been shown that the temperature reaches the maximum values at a depth corresponding to the contact area between the coating and the substrate. It has been established that exposure to aluminum samples with a ceramic coating of fast deuterium ion fluxes and high-temperature deuterium plasma in the plasma focus device results in melting and partial evaporation of the surface coating layer.

 

Key words: oxide ceramic coating, aluminum substrate, laser radiation, ion and plasma fluxes.

DOI: 10.30791/1028-978X-2018-12-15-27

 

Gribkov Vladimir — Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Material Science of RAS (49 Leninskii Prospect, Moscow 119334, Russia); Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (23 Hery Str., 01-497 Warsaw, Poland), DrSci (Phys.-Math.), leading research worker, professor. E-mail: gribkovv@rambler.ru.

Demin Aleksandr — Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Material Science of RAS (49 Leninskii Prospect, Moscow 119334, Russia), research worker. E-mail:casha@bk.ru.

Epifanov Nikita — Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Material Science of RAS (49 Leninskii Prospect, Moscow 119334, Russia), engineer-researcher, master of science of the National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail address: mophix94@gmail.com.

Kazilin Evgenii — Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Material Science of RAS (49 Leninskii Prospect, Moscow 119334, Russia), PhD, senior research worker. E-mail: symp@imet.ac.ru.

Latyshev Sergei — Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Material Science of RAS (49 Leninskii Prospect, Moscow 119334, Russia), PhD, senior research worker. E-mail: latyshevsv@rambler.ru.

Maslyaev Sergey — Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Material Science of RAS
(49 Leninskii Prospect, Moscow 119334, Russia), PhD, senior research worker. E-mail:
maslyaev@mail.ru.

Morozov Evgenii — Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Material Science of RAS (49 Leninskii Prospect, Moscow 119334, Russia), research worker. E-mail: lieutenant@list.ru.

 

Sasinovskaya Irina — Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Material Science of RAS (49 Leninskii Prospect, Moscow 119334, Russia), research worker. E-mail: porfirievna@mail.ru.

Sirotinkin Vladimir — Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Material Science of RAS (49 Leninskii Prospect, Moscow 119334, Russia), PhD, senior research worker. E-mail:
sir@imet.ac.ru.

Minkov Kirill — National Research University Higher School of Economics (20 Myasnitskaya Str., Moscow 101000, Russia), junior researcher. E-mail: kminkov@vniiofi.ru.

Paduch Marian — Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (23 Hery Str., 01-497 Warsaw, Poland), PhD, head of department. E-mail: marian.paduch@ifpilm.pl.

Reference citing

Gribkov V. A., Demin A. S., Epifanov N. A., Kazilin E. E., Latyshev S. V., Maslyaev S. A., Morozov E. V., Sasinovskaya I. P., Sirotinkin V. P., Minkov K. N., Paduch M. Povrezhdaemost' pokrytiya iz oksida Al2O3  na alyuminievoj podlozhke impul'snym puchkovo-plazmennym i lazernym izlucheniem [Damage of aluminum samples with alumina ceramic coating under pulsed energy flows of various nature]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2018, no. 12, pp. 15 – 27. DOI: 10.30791/1028-978X-2018-12-15-27

 
Synthesis and properties of porous silver

M. I. Alymov, A. B. Ankudinov, E. V. Evstratov

Porous materials are widely used due to their developed surface and porosity for the production of filters, heat exchangers, catalysts and other products. Powder metallurgy is one of the methods for production of porous structures. Salt crystals, in particular, sodium chloride (table salt) or sugar can be used as a blowing agent. This paper describes powder technology for producing silver with an open porous structure using white refined sugar as a pore-forming component. Experimental studies of the pressing and sintering of silver powders with the aim of obtaining porous compacts were carried out. We used industrial powder of silver MDS-1 with a specific surface area determined by the BET method, equal to 0.15 m2/g, which corresponds to an average particle size of about 10 microns. Food sugar powder with a crystal size of about 1 mm was used as a blowing agent. The mixture of silver powders and a blowing agent (sugar) was made on the basis of a proportion of 30 vol. % Ag + 70 vol. % sugar, in terms of mass percent: 74 wt.% Ag + 26 wt.% sugar. The mixture was mixed in a C 2.0 turbulent mixer. Densification of powders with a binder was performed by uniaxial pressing under a pressure of 600 MPa, followed by treatment in a hydrostat under a pressure of 200 and 500 MPa. Removal of the blowing agent and binder for all samples was carried out as follows. The pressed sample was placed on a stand in a 100 ml beaker and filled with distilled water. A glass of water was heated to 90 °C and kept for 5 h, after which the water was changed and the cycle was repeated for 1 h. After that, the sample was removed and allowed to air dry for a day. Sintering of all samples was performed in a Nabertherm furnace in air according to the following mode: heating for 1 h to 850 °C; holding at 850 °C for 3 hours; further cooled with oven. The relative density of the samples was calculated by dividing the absolute density by the theoretical silver density equal to 4.29 g/cm3.The microstructure of the obtained samples of porous silver was investigated on an optical microscope. After sintering in air, a material with an open porosity of more than 70% was obtained.It is shown that additional treatment in a hydrostat at a pressure of 200 and 500 MPa does not lead to an increase in porosity.

Keywords: powder metallurgy, porous materials, silver powder, blowing agent, experiment.

DOI: 10.30791/1028-978X-2018-12-28-33

Alymov Mikhail — Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science of Russian Academy of Sciences (119334, Moscow, Leninsky pr., 49); Institute of Structural Macrokinetics and Materials Science of Russian Academy of Sciences (142432 Moscow Region, Chernogolovka, Academician Osipyan str., 8), Corresponding member of RAS, DrSci (Eng.), professor, head of laboratory (IMET), director (ISMAN), leading specialist in surface science, powder metallurgy and nanomaterials. E-mail: alymov@imet.ac.ru.

 

Ankudinov Alexey — Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Russian Academy of Sciences (119334, Moscow, Leninsky pr., 49), scientist, specialist in materials science and powder metallurgy. E-mail: a-58@bk.ru.

 

Evstratov Evgeny — Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Russian Academy of Sciences (119334, Moscow, Leninsky pr., 49), PhD (Eng), senior research worker. E-mail: evev@imet.ac.ru.

Reference citing

Alymov M. I., Ankudinov A. B., Evstratov E. V. Sintez i svojstva poristogo serebra [Synthesis and properties of porous silver]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2018, no. 12, pp. 28 – 33. DOI: 10.30791/1028-978X-2018-12-28-33

 
Cermet TiCN – Ni – Mo – C plasma coatings synthesized
from plasma-chemical nanosized powders

V. I. Kalita, A. A. Radyuk, D. I. Komlev, A. B. Mikhailova,
A. Yu. Ivannikov, A. V. Alpatov, D. D. Titov

Nano structural cermet TiCN-Ni-Mo-C coatings were sprayed by plasma with local protection from a mechanically doped and sintered powder system. High oxygen content in original nano-sized Ni and Mo powders determined oxygen content during mechanical alloying. Content of C, N and O were decreased under powders sintering temperature 1130 °C, that was explained by oxides reduction. The reduction of oxides also occurs during plasma deposition. The average oxygen content is decreased on 51.8 % and carbon on 32.6 %. The use of nitrogen during mechanical alloying determined its content in powder to be sprayed. The experimental value of coatings microhardness under 20 g loading was 9.65 GPa, that determined by contribution to microhardness of TiCN with 50 % volume fraction.

 

Keywords: nanoscale cermet, TiCN – NiMo – C composition, coating, plasma, local protection, mechanical alloying, microhardness.

 

DOI: 10.30791/1028-978X-2018-12-34-45

Kalita Vasilii — Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science of RAS (Moscow, 119334, Leninsky Prospect, 49), Dr Sci (Eng), chief scientific officer, specialist in the field of plasma spraying. E-mail: vkalita@imet.ac.ru.

Radiuk Aleksei — Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science of RAS (Moscow, 119334, Leninsky Prospect, 49), junior researcher, specialist in the field of plasma spraying. E-mail: imet-lab25@yandex.ru.

Komlev Dmitrii — Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science of RAS (Moscow, 119334, Leninsky Prospect, 49), PhD (Eng), leading Researcher, specialist in the field of plasma spraying. E-mail: imet-lab25@yandex.ru.

Ivannikov Alexander — Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science of RAS (Moscow, 119334, Leninsky Prospect, 49), PhD (Eng), senior researcher, specialist in the field of plasma spraying. E-mail: imet-lab25@yandex.ru.

Mihajlova Aleksandra — Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science of RAS (Moscow, 119334, Leninsky Prospect, 49), PhD (Eng), senior researcher, specialist in the field of X-ray analysis specialist. E-mail: sasham1@mail.ru.

Alpatov Alexander — Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science of RAS (Moscow, 119334, Leninsky Prospect, 49), PhD (Eng), senior researcher, specialist in the field of diagnostics of materials for the content of light elements. E-mail: alpat72@mail.ru.

Titov Dmitrii — Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science of RAS (Moscow, 119334, Leninsky Prospect, 49), PhD (Eng), senior researcher, specialist in the field of analysis and technology for the production of ceramic materials.

Reference citing

Kalita V. I., Radyuk A. A., Komlev D. I., Mikhailova A. B., Ivannikov A. Yu., Alpatov A. V., Titov D. D. Kermetnye plazmennye pokrytiya TiCN – Ni – Mo – C sintezirovannye iz plazmohimicheskih nanorazmernyh poroshkov [Cermet TiCN – Ni – Mo – C plasma coatings synthesized from plasma-chemical nanosized powders]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2018, no. 12, pp. 34 – 45. DOI: 10.30791/1028-978X-2018-12-34-45

 
Influence of sintering parameters on the phase composition
of ceramics based on aluminum oxinitride

A. G. Kolmakov, D. V. Prosvirnin, M. D. Larionov, A. S. Alikhanyan,
M. E. Prutskov, S. V. Pivovarchik

Currently, a wide range of industries require materials that have specific combinations of properties, such as high strength, transparency and low specific gravity. Such parameters of products are critical in the aircraft industry, the production of parts of space vehicles, optical instruments and other fields of technology. A promising representative of this class of materials is monophase dense ceramics based on aluminum oxynitride. In this paper, literature data on the methods of synthesis and sintering of aluminum oxynitride powders were studied. Based on foreign literature sources and previously obtained experience, samples of ceramic material based on aluminum oxynitride were produced. The effectiveness of the sintering methods at temperatures of 1750 – 1950 °C and a holding time of two to ten hours is estimated. To evaluate the efficiency, the structure of the obtained samples was studied using a microscope and a phase composition, using the XRF method. The influence of heating parameters, sintering atmosphere and the quality of the initial powders on the formation of the aluminum oxynitride phase is considered. Based on the data obtained, one can judge the efficiency and economic feasibility of applying a particular sintering method for different compositions of aluminum oxynitride powders. The sample, sintered in a vacuum furnace of resistance, without nitrogen atmosphere, does not have aluminum oxynitride phase in the composition, due to the release of nitrogen from the sample volume, and also has a strong shrinkage. The method of induction sintering in a nitrogen atmosphere made it possible to achieve a concentration of the target phase, aluminum oxynitride, about 85% and a density, also, about 85% of the theoretical density (3.69  g/cm3). The mode in which these results were achieved: an exposure of 10 hours, at a temperature of 1750 °C.

Keywords: aluminum oxynitride, structure, strength, reaction sintering, ceramic.

DOI: 10.30791/1028-978X-2018-12-46-52

Kolmakov Aleksey — Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science of RAS (Moscow, 119334, Leninsky Prospect, 49), corresponding member of RAS, Dr Sci (Eng), deputy director of science, specialist in the field of new metal, ceramic and composite materials and coatings, mechanical properties of materials. E-mail: kolmakov@imet.ac.ru.

Prosvirnin Dmitry — Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science of RAS (Moscow, 119334, Leninsky Prospect, 49), PhD (Eng), senior researcher, specialist in the field of fundamental foundations for the creation of new metal, ceramic and composite materials, destruction of deformable bodies, kinetics and dynamics. E-mail: imetran@yandex.ru; mail@imetran.ru.

Larionov Maxim — Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science of RAS (Moscow, 119334, Leninsky Prospect, 49), engineer-researcher, specialist in the field of fundamental foundations for the creation of new metal, ceramic and composite materials, destruction of deformable bodies, kinetics and dynamics. E-mail: larionov1996@mail.com.

Alikhanyan Andrey — Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry (Leninsky prosp., 31, 119991, Moscow), Dr Sci (Chem), professor, head of the laboratory, specialist in the field of chemical thermodynamics, physical chemistry of the surface and interphase boundaries, adsorption of physical methods for studying the structure and thermodynamics inorganic compounds. E-mail: alikhan@igic.ras.ru.

Prutskov Mikhail — Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science of RAS (Moscow, 119334, Leninsky Prospect, 49), researcher, specialist in the field of fundamental foundations for the creation of new metal, ceramic and composite materials, destruction of deformable bodies, kinetics and dynamics. E-mail: mprmf03@gmail.com.

Pivovarchik Svetlana — Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science of RAS (Moscow, 119334, Leninsky Prospect, 49), researcher, specialist in the field of fundamental foundations for the creation of new metal, ceramic and composite materials, destruction of deformable bodies, kinetics and dynamics. E-mail: PivovarchikSV@yandex.ru.

Reference citing

Kolmakov A. G., Prosvirnin D. V., Larionov M. D., Alikhanyan A. S., Prutskov M. E., Pivovarchik S. V. Vliyanie parametrov spekaniya na fazovyj sostav keramiki na osnove oksinitrida alyuminiya. [Influence of sintering parameters on the phase composition of ceramics based on aluminum oxinitride]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2018, no. 12, pp. 46 – 52. DOI: 10.30791/1028-978X-2018-12-46-52

 
Formation of properties of carbon black particles in the conditions of the gas-phase thermochemical modification

Yu. V. Surovikin, A. G. Shaitanov, I. V. Rezanov, A. V. Syrieva

Purposeful formation of structural and functional properties of carbon black (СB) in the process of obtaining or as a result of its subsequent processing is an important practical task aimed at the development of special grades of this product and above all with enhanced electrical conductive properties. This paper is a continuation of research conducted earlier and is aimed at establishing patterns of “structure – property” arising from the influence of basic technological methods. The study considers the effect of gas-phase thermochemical modification (thermal-oxidative and thermal up to 3000 °C) on microstructural and textural parameters and surface chemistry of CB particles as well as the relations of these characteristics with electrophysical properties of CB powders. A combined modification of CB powders, including their thermal treatment at 3000 °C and subsequent steam activation at 900 °C, was carried out and investigated. Electrical resistance was estimated by the volumetric method with compression of nanostructured powders at a pressure up to 200 atm. A comprehensive structural study was performed to compare the particles of different CB grades with commercial conducting samples, both domestic and foreign. The observed effects are considered from the standpoint of ideal crystalline systems (graphenes) the study of which in recent years has been the subject of many fundamental and applied research.

Keywords: carbon black, gas-phase thermochemical modification, electrical resistance, specific surface area, structure parameters, graphene.

DOI: 10.30791/1028-978X-2018-12-53-73

Surovikin Yury — Institute of Hydrocarbon Processing Problems of Siberian Branch of RAS (Omsk, 644040, 54 Neftezavodskaya Str.); Omsk State Technical University (Omsk, 644050, 11 Mira Pr.), Ph. D., associate professor, head of Carbon black and composite materials laboratory, expert in the development and research of nanodispersed carbon materials and composites on their basis. E-mail: suruv@mail.ru.

 

Shaitanov Alexander — Institute of Hydrocarbon Processing Problems of Siberian Branch of RAS (Omsk, 644040, 54 Neftezavodskaya Str.), leading engineer, expert in the development and research of nanodispersed carbon materials and composites based on them. E-mail: shagomsk@rambler.ru.

Rezanov Ilya — Institute of Hydrocarbon Processing Problems of Siberian Branch of RAS (Omsk, 644040, 54 Neftezavodskaya Str.), research assistant, expert in the development and research of nanodispersed carbon materials and composites based on them. E-mail: rezanov_ilya@mail.ru.

Syrieva Anna — Institute of Hydrocarbon Processing Problems of Siberian Branch of RAS (Omsk, 644040, 54 Neftezavodskaya Str.), Ph.D., research officer, expert in the development and research of nanodispersed carbon materials and composites based on them. E-mail: syrieva@mail.ru.

Reference citing

Surovikin Yu. V., Shaitanov A. G., Rezanov I. V., Syrieva A. V. Formirovanie svojstv chastic tekhnicheskogo ugleroda v usloviyah termogazohimicheskoj modifikacii  [Formation of properties of carbon black particles in the conditions of the gas-phase thermochemical modification]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2018, no. 12, pp. 53 – 73. DOI: 10.30791/1028-978X-2018-12-53-73

 
Copper smelter dust as promising material for recovery
of non-ferrous metals by the Waelz process

P. I. Grudinsky, V. G. Dyubanov, P. A. Kozlov

Dust of gas cleaning systems in the process of blister copper production is a waste of 2 class of hazard. The accumulation of copper smelter dust may cause significant damage to the environment in the places of their storage. This dust contains significant contents of zinc, lead, tin and copper that make possible to use it for recovery of mentioned elements. However, there are a number of characteristics such as complex multicomponent composition and high content of halogens. The physicochemical properties of the copper smelter dusts of FL PPM AO “Uralelectromed” sample-1 (Russia) and PO Balkhashtsvetmet sample-2 (Kazakhstan) were studied using chemical, X-ray phase and electron microscopy methods. In the both dust samples the presence of the most of lead in the form of sulphate and sulphide, zinc in the form of orthostannate, ferrite and sulphide and copper in the form of chalcopyrite was identified. To obtain the intermediate products for the production of zinc, lead, tin and copper industrial processing of the copper smelter dust can be most effectively carried out by the proposed technological scheme with one pyrometallurgical treatment in the Waelz furnace and further hydrometallurgical separation.

Keywords: copper smelter dust, Waelz process, process flowsheet, diffraction pattern, X-ray phase analysis.

DOI: 10.30791/1028-978X-2018-12-74-81

Grudinsky Pavel — Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Material Science RAS (Leninsky avenue 49, Moscow, 119334, Russia), junior research scientist, specialist in the field of industrial waste recycling. E-mail: gpi_lab3@imet.ac.ru.

Dyubanov Valery — Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Material Science RAS, (Leninsky avenue 49, Moscow, 119334, Russia), PhD (Eng), leading researcher, specialist in the field of ferrous metallurgy. E-mail: dyuba@imet.ac.ru.

Kozlov Pavel — Non-state Educational Private Institution of Higher Education Technical University (UGMK, Uspensky avenue 3, Verkhnyaya Pyshma, Sverdlovsk oblast, 624091, Russia), Dr Sci (Eng), deputy director of research, specialist in the field of nonferrous metallurgy. E-mail: p.kozlov@tu-ugmk.com.

Reference citing

Grudinsky P. I., Dyubanov V. G., Kozlov P. A. Pyl' ot plavki medi — perspektivnyj material dlya izvlecheniya cvetnyh metallov vel'cevaniem [Copper smelter dust as promising material for recovery of non-ferrous metals by the Waelz process]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2018, no. 12, pp. 74 – 81. DOI: 10.30791/1028-978X-2018-12-74-81