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Journal Perspektivnye Materialy 

 
Theoretical and experimental studies of the luminescent properties of nanoparticles

S. A. Kazaryan, N. F. Starodubtsev


A theoretical research has been performed and analytical dependences of the concentration of nonequilibrium charge carriers and luminescence intensity on the surface recombination rate s, radius, diffusion length and lifetime of minority charge carriers, as well as other parameters of isolated nanoparticles (NPs) and composite films with NPs have been obtained. A hyperbolic dependence of the photoluminescence intensity (PL) on the parameter s is has been identified. It has been shown theoretically and experimentally that photostimulated growth s of NPs brings about quenching, while a decrease results in intensification of PL. The dependence of the PL intensity on the exciting laser exposure time of the powdered carbon nanoparticles (CNPs), solutions of CNPs and composite films based on PVOH polymers and CNPs with an average diameter of 1.3 and 1.7 nm has been researched and analyzed by microphotoluminescence. It has been established that in the range 100 – 200 °C of the film processing temperature, exposure by 532 nm excitation radiation with a high power density reduces the PL intensity, and increases it in the range 220 – 340 °C. Exposure of dry CNPs powders significantly, in fact at any time, reduces the intensity of PL. Based on the results obtained, a new method for contactless and rapid measurement of the parameters of luminescent NPs has been put forward.

 

Keywords: luminescence of nanoparticles, fluorescence of nanoparticles, luminescence of quantum dots, nanoparticles, carbon nanoparticles, carbon quantum dots, quantum yield of nanoparticles, synthesis of carbon nanoparticles and quantum dots, luminescence of graphite oxide.
 

Kazaryan Samvel — Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS (Leninsky prospect 43, 119334, Moscow, Russia), Ph.D. (Phys-Math), head of department, specialist in the field of luminescence of semiconductors, diamonds, nanosized carbons, technology for nanoporous materials synthesis and electrochemical supercapacitors. E-mail: skazaryan.fian@gmail.com.

 

Starodubtsev Nikolai — Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS (Leninsky prospect 43, 119334, Moscow, Russia), Ph.D. (Phys-Math), head of department, specialist in quantum electronics, semiconductor lasers, optics, nanosized materials technology and electrochemical supercapacitors. E-mail: nfstaro@gmail.com.

Reference citing

Kazaryan S. A., Starodubtsev N. F. Teoreticheskie i ehksperimental'nye issledovaniya lyuminescentnyh svojstv nanochastic [Theoretical and experimental studies of the luminescent properties of nanoparticles]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2017, no. 8, pp. 5 – 20.

 
Investigation of thermal resistance of electric machines insulating materials under influence if high temperatures

I. V. Vitkovsky , K. A. Komov, V. S. Federyaeva, T. V. Larionova,
O. V. Tolochko,  Y. S. Miroshnichenko, V. A. Chumaevsky,
N. A. Dostanko


Modern nuclear energetics raises exploitation requirements to reliability, construction and electrical engineering materials of equipment being developed. Reliability and operating life of electrical machines operating at high temperatures depends to a large extent on applied insulating materials. In this paper resistance of insulating materials of field coil bobbin of electromagnetic pumps to the influence of high temperature in the range of 250 – 650 °C is considered. Thermal ageing and differential thermal analysis was used to investigate thermal resistance of electrical engineering materials. Experimental data processing is made by graph plotting using linearization in logarithmic coordinates. Mechanism of thermal destruction was determined by integral form of equation characteristic for each type of mechanism. Investigations carried out revealed that following by technological processes of winding wire formation heat treatment which conditions are appropriate to exploitation parameters is accompanied by materials mass loss and processes of moisture removal, destruction, polymerization and gas emission. Duration of these processes depends on temperature and time of thermal treatment. Activation energies and decomposition rates at the beginning of thermal ageing are calculated. Degradation mechanisms of insulating materials are different and described by nucleation and diffusion models.

 

Key words: thermal and high temperature-oxidation resistant insulation materials, winding wires, Prout-Tompkins equation, solid-state reactions, Jander equation, three dimensional diffusion, electrical insulation materials of electrical machines.
 

Vitkovsky Ivan — D.V. Efremov Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus (JSC NIIEFA, 196641, Russia, Saint-Petersburg, Metallostroy, Doroga na Metallostroy, 3 bld.), principal scientific officer, Dr.Sci. Died in 2016.

 

Komov Kirill — D.V. Efremov Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus (JSC NIIEFA, 196641, Russia, Saint-Petersburg, Metallostroy, Doroga na Metallostroy, 3 bld.), leading engineer, specialist in electrical and magnetohydrodynamic machines. E-mail: komov@ sintez.niiefa. spb.su.

 

Federyaeva Valeriya — D.V. Efremov Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus (JSC NIIEFA, 196641, Russia, Saint-Petersburg, Metallostroy, Doroga na Metallostroy, 3 bld.), senior scientist, PhD, expert in composite materials. E-mail: federyaeva_v.s @ sintez.niiefa.spb.su.

 

Larionova Tatyana — Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (195251, St.Petersburg, Polytechnicheskaya, 29), PhD, assistant prof., specialist in phase transformation, DTA, XRD. E-mail: larionova@hotmail.com.

 

Toloсhko Oleg — Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University” (195251, St.Petersburg, Polytechnicheskaya, 29), Dr.Sci, prof., expert in powder metallurgy, composite materials, hybrid materials. E-mail: ol_tol@hotmail.com.

 

Miroshnichenko Yuliya — CJSC FK (1, Chapaev st., Buy, Kostroma region, 157003, Russia), research engineer, specialist in inorganic compositions and coatings, special purpose compositions. E-mail: foskons@yandex.ru.

 

Chumaevskiy Victor — CJSC FK (1, Chapaev st., Buy, Kostroma region, 157003, Russia), PhD (Eng), Director of Closed joint-stock company FK. E-mail: foskons@yandex.ru. Dostanko Nina — JSC Pskovkabel (Almaznaya st., 3, Pskov, 180006), Chief process engineer, specialist in winding wires. E-mail: dostanko@pskovkabel.ru.

Reference citing

Vitkovsky I. V., Komov K. A., Federyaeva V. S., Larionova T. V., Tolochko O. V., Miroshnichenko Y. S., Chumaevsky V. A., Dostanko N. A. Issledovanie termostojkosti ehlektroizolyacionnyh materialov ehlektricheskih mashin pri vysokotemperaturnom vozdejstvii [Investigation of thermal resistance of electric machines insulating materials under influence if high temperatures]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2017, no. 8, pp. 21 – 30.

 
Change of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen content  under formation of plasma cermet coatings with steel matrix hardened by titanium carbide

V. I. Kalita, D. I. Komlev, G. A. Pribytkov, V. V. Korzhova,
A. A. Radyuk,  A. V. Baranovsky, A. Yu. Ivannikov,
A. V. Alpatov, M. B. Krinitsyn, A. B. Mikhaylova


Comparative studies of coatings made of high-speed steel R6M5 and cermet powder based on it with a content of 50 % by volume of the hardening carbide phase TiC are performed. The coatings were formed with Ar – N2 plasma with local protection from powders with particle sizes from 25 to 55 μm. It is shown that the content of the TiC phase in the coating is preserved, but the lattice period of this phase decreases from 0.43212 nm for the powder to 0.43035 nm in the coating because of a change in the content of carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen. As a result, of the plasma spraying of the powder 50 % TiC – R6M5, the average carbon content in the coating decreases from 7.83 to 6.74 %. The oxygen content of the cermet coating is increased to 2.8 % compared to 0.8 % in the original powder. The nitrogen content also increases from 0.05 to 0.89 %. The microhardness of the particles of the initial high-speed steel powders is 8.91 GPa, and the cardmete is 50 % TiC – R6M5 9.5 GPa. The microhardness of the cermet coating, 11.0 GPa, corresponds to the calculated value obtained by the rule of mixtures, with the microhardness of the coating of R6M5 steel 6.64 GPa.

 

Keywords: plasma cermet coating, TiC-R6M5, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, lattice parameter.

Kalita Vasilii` — A.A. Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Sciences of RAS (Moscow, 119334, Leninsky Prospect, 49), DrSci (eng), chief scientific officer, specialist in plasma spraying. E-mail: vkalita@imet.ac.ru.

 

Komlev Dmitrii` — A.A. Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Sciences of RAS (Moscow, 119334, Leninsky Prospect, 49), Ph.D., leading researcher, specialist in plasma spraying. E-mail: imet-lab25@yandex.ru.

 

Pribytkov Gennady — Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS
 (2/4, Academicheskii av., Tomsk, Russia, 634055, ISPMS SB RAS) Ph.D., general researcher, laboratory of Physics of nanostructural functional materials, specialist in powder metallurgy, composite materials, wear-resistant coatings. E-mail: gapribyt@mail.ru.

 

Korzhova Victoria — Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS
 (2/4, Academicheskii av., Tomsk, Russia, 634055, ISPMS SB RAS), PhD (Eng), researcher, laboratory of Physics of nanostructural functional materials, specialist in powder metallurgy, composite materials, wear-resistant coatings. E-mail: Vicvic5@mail.ru.

 

Radiuk Aleksei` — A.A. Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Sciences of RAS (Moscow, 119334, Leninsky Prospect, 49), junior researcher, specialist in the field of plasma spraying. E-mail: imet-lab25@yandex.ru.

 

Baranovskii Anton —Tomsk Polytechnic University (30, Lenin av., Tomsk, Russia, 634050, TPU), undergraduate student, specializes in powder metallurgy, composite materials. E-mail: nigalisha@gmail.com.

 

Ivannikov Alexander — A.A. Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Sciences of RAS (Moscow, 119334, Leninsky Prospect, 49), Ph.D, senior researcher, specialist in plasma spraying. E-mail: imet-lab25@yandex.ru.

 

Alpatov Aleksandr — A.A. Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Sciences of RAS (Moscow, 119334, Leninsky Prospect, 49), PhD, senior researcher, specialist in elemental analysis of powders (oxygen, nitrogen and carbon). E-mail: alpat72@mal.ru.

 

Krinitsin Maxim — Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS
 (2/4, Academicheskii av., Tomsk, Russia, 634055, ISPMS SB RAS), technologist, laboratory of Physics of nanostructural functional materials, specialist in powder metallurgy, composite materials, wear-resistant coatings. E-mail: krinmax@gmail.com.

 

Mihajlova Aleksandra — A.A. Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Sciences of RAS (Moscow, 119334, Leninsky Prospect, 49), PhD, senior researcher, specialist in the field of X-ray analysis. E-mail: sasham1@mail.ru.

Reference citing

Kalita V. I., Komlev D. I., Pribytkov G. A., Korzhova V. V., Radyuk A. A., Baranovsky A. V., Ivannikov A. Yu., Alpatov A. V., Krinitsyn M. B., Mikhaylova A. B. Izmenenie soderzhaniya ugleroda, azota i kisloroda pri formirovanii plazmennyh kermetnyh pokrytij so stal'noj matricej, uprochnennoj karbidom titana [Change of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen content under formation of plasma cermet coatings with steel matrix hardened by titanium carbide]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2017, no. 8, pp. 31 – 39.

 
Effect of carbon nanotubes on mechanical properties  of A5-type cast aluminum

 

A. V. Alekseev, D. Yu. Dubov, M. R. Predtechenskiy


We obtained composite materials with aluminum A5 matrix containing 0,01 – 0,1 wt. % carbon nanotubes (CNT). For composite making we used method of casting into sand moulds. CNT was added to the melt in the form of powder mixture milled by AGO2C planetary ball mill. CNT additives improved tensile strength and yield strength of cast aluminum at 9 % and 32 % respectively. Improvement of mechanical properties of metal caused by such little quantities of CNT originates not only from inoculating effect but based on dispersion, dislocation and in les degree share lag reinforcement mechanisms. For CNT content of 0,01 wt. % the calculated yield strength value is matches with experimental value. For 0,05 wt.% and 0,1 wt.% of CNT content the yield strength of aluminum is much less then theoretical calculation, that may be related with CNT agglomeration. We explore the degree of CNT conversion in to aluminum carbide. It was shown that less than 50 % of CNT were converted in to carbide by contact with liquid aluminum at 700 – 800 °C during melting casting and crystallization of aluminum. The fact that CNTs are not completely converted into carbide may be due to the fact that CNTs are in bundles, and only the top layer of CNT bundles is in contact with the melt.

 

Key words: aluminum, carbon nanotubes, cast composites, reinforcing mechanisms, aluminum carbide.

Alekseev Artjom — International Science Centre of Thermophysics and Energetics (Novosibirsk, 630128, Kutateladze st., 7/11), master of physics, research officer, specialist in the field of metal matrix composites. E-mail: artem.alekseev@ocsial.com.

 

Dubov Dmitri — Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics, Siberian Branch of RAS (Novosibirsk 630090, Lavrent’eva 1); International Science Centre of Thermophysics and Energetics (Novosibirsk, 630128, Kutateladze st., 7/11), PhD, senior researcher, specialist in the field of nanoparticle and cluster physics. E-mail: dubov.dy@ocsial.com.

 

Predtechenskiy Mikhail — Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics, Siberian Branch of RAS (Novosibirsk 630090, Lavrent’eva 1); International Science Centre of Thermophysics and Energetics (Novosibirsk, 630128, Kutateladze st., 7/11), prof., academician of RAS, physicist, expert in mechanics, thermal physics and power engineering. E-mail: predtech@ocsial.com.
 

Reference citing

Alekseev A. V., Dubov D. Yu., Predtechenskiy M. R. Vliyanie uglerodnyh nanotrubok na mekhanicheskie svojstva litogo alyuminiya marki A5 [Effect of carbon nanotubes on mechanical properties of A5-type cast aluminum]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2017, no. 8, pp. 40 – 52.

 
Nanocomposites modified with coupling agent based
on polypropylene and talc

R. V. Kurbanova, N. T. Kakhramanov, A. M. Muzafarov,
G. D. Heydarova


The main physico-mechanical properties of polymer composites based on polypropylene and dressed mineral filler are described. Talc is used as filler. The dependence of the strength properties of polymer composites on the concentration and particle size of talc is established. Nanoparticles with size of 10 – 105 nm is obtained in analytical mill A-11 in maximum rotation of the rotor 28000 rev/min. the optimal concentration of filler and coupling agent is determined, in which the best results are achieved on physico-mechanical and physico-chemical properties. 3-aminopropyltrietoxysilane is used as coupling agent. The maximum breaking stress is reached in composites with content of 10%wt of talc and 1%wt of coupling agent. The increase in heat resistance of nanocomposites with increasing content of dressed talc is interpreted by the existence of possible covalent bond of silanes with tertiary carbon atoms, or double bonds presented in the polypropylene.


Keywords: coupling agents, modification, nanocomposites, filler, talc.

Kahramanov Najaf Tofig — Institute of Polymer Materials of ANAS (Azerbaijan, Sumgayit, AZ 5004, S.Vurgun Str, 124), DrSci (Chem), professor, head of laboratory of Mechano-chemical modification and processing of polymers, specialist in the field of macromolecular compounds, modification of polymers, preparation, investigation and treatment of polymer materials and nanocomposites. E-mail: najaf1946@rambler.ru.

 

Muzafarov Aziz Mansur — A.N. Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds of Russian Academy of Sciences (INEOS RAS, Russia, 119991, GSP-1, Moscow, V-334, Vavilova St. 28), academician, director of the Institute, specialist in the field of macromolecular compounds, synthesis and investigation of polymeric and oligomeric organosilicon compounds and coupling agents for polymer composites.


Kurbanova Rena Vagif — Azerbaijan State Oil and Industrial University (Azerbaijan, Baku, 117 Nizami st.), PhD (chem), associate professor, specialist in the field of macromolecular compounds, synthesis and investigation of polymeric materials senior lecturer of sub-faculty. E-mail: rena06.42@yandex.ru.


Heydarova Gultakin Dursun — Institute of Polymer Materials of ANAS (Azerbaijan, Sumgayit, AZ 5004, S.Vurgun Str, 124), research associate, specialist in the field of obtaining polymer composites and investigation their physico-mechanical properties.

Reference citing

Kurbanova R. V., Kakhramanov N. T., Muzafarov A. M., Heydarova G. D. Nanokompozity na osnove polipropilena i tal'ka modificirovannye appretom [Nanocomposites modified with coupling agent based on polypropylene and talc]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2017, no. 8, pp. 53 – 59.

 
Studying phase composition of CuO/Cu2O nanoparticles  formed in the plasma arc discharge of low pressure

L. Yu. Fedorov, I. V. Karpov, A. V. Ushakov, A. A. Lepeshev


The methods of electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray and thermal analysis were used to investigate the influence of synthesis process parameters on peculiarities of formation of crystalline phases of copper oxide nanoparticles. The nanopowders were produced by means of evaporation of bulk copper cathode by arc discharge at low pressure with subsequent condensation of products of plasma-chemical reactions on the substrate. The partial pressure of oxygen in the feeding gas mixture of Ar /O2, equal to 3-30 Pa, was used as a variable parameter. The mentioned methods were used to show the formation of particles with controllable dispersion, phase composition and structural features. Controlling the characteristics of nanodispersed oxides is based on the mechanisms of their formation under the competing influence of coagulation and diffusive processes. The products of the synthesis are spherical powders of copper oxides containing a mixture of crystalline phases with prevalence of CuO and an average numerical particle size of 10 – 20 nm. The qualitative differences of the samples obtained for the opposite values of the oxygen partial pressure (PО2 = 3 and 30 Pa) are confirmed in the interpretation of the IR and DTA spectra. The transmission bands characteristic for CuO within the range of wave numbers of 440 – 530 cm–1, as well as for Cu2O – 1130 cm–1, 2923 cm–1 and 2970 cm–1 are shown. The differences of DTA curves result from different thermal stability of CuO/Cu2O oxides at different their proportion in the samples under study.

 

Keywords: nanoparticles, copper oxide, plasma arc discharge of low pressure, X-ray, electron microscopy, DSC/TG analysis

Fedorov Leonid — Siberian Federal University (79 Svobodny pr., 660041 Krasnoyarsk, Russia), junior researcher, specialist in the field of vacuum arc processes and their technical applications. E-mail: fedorov.krsk@gmail.com.


Karpov Igor — Siberian Federal University (79 Svobodny pr., 660041 Krasnoyarsk, Russia), PhD (eng), senior researcher, specialist in the field of nanostructured materials science, development of nanocomposites. E-mail: karpovsfu@mail.ru.


Ushakov Anatoly — Siberian Federal University (79 Svobodny pr., 660041 Krasnoyarsk, Russia), PhD (eng), senior researcher, specialist in the field of technical physics, vacuum plasma processes and modeling. E-mail: ushackov@mail.ru.


Lepeshev Anatoly — Siberian Federal University (79 Svobodny pr., 660041 Krasnoyarsk, Russia), Dr Sci (eng), leading researcher, specialist in the field of technical physics, plasma processes, synthesis and study of nanostructures. E-mail: alepeshev@yandex.ru.
 

Reference citing

Fedorov L. Yu., Karpov I. V., Ushakov A. V., Lepeshev A. A. Issledovanie fazovogo sostava nanochastic CuO/Cu2O formiruemyh v plazme dugovogo razryada nizkogo davleniya [Studying phase composition of CuO/Cu2O nanoparticles formed in the plasma arc discharge of low pressure]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2017, no. 8, pp. 60 – 68.

 
Functionalization of carbon nanotues
by carbon black or polymers to modify the dynamic mechanical properties of rubber

I. A. Mansurova, A. A. Burkov, O. Yu. Isupova, I. A. Zagrai,
A. G. Khlebov, E. A. Durnev, K. E. Gavrilov


In the work powdered products (masterbatches) of functionalization of single- and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by carbon black or polymer (sodium alginate, polyvinylpyrrolidone) were received. Masterbatches are mixed with carbon black and introduced into the production of rubber mixtures. It was found that vulcanizates modified by masterbatches have a higher fatigue endurance. Judging by the complex of physical and mechanical properties of rubber mixtures and vulcanizates, it is caused by a change of the kinetic or structural activity of the modified filler. So, polar particles CNT/polymer are localized at interfaces, showing a plasticizing effect, increasing the kinetic mobility of the supramolecular structures. Hybrid particles CNT/carbon black affect the ratio of free, bound and occluded rubber in the structure of vulcanizates. As a result, on the one hand, the proportion of free rubber increases, and on the other - there are areas with increased interfacial interaction “rubber-filler”. It promotes the growth of the crack resistance of vulcanizates. An additional factor that contributes to the growth of fatigue endurance of vulcanizates can be the ability of bundles of SWCNTs to carry mechanical load during the deformation process.

 

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, functionalization of carbon nanotubes, fatigue endurance of rubber.
 

Mansurova Irina — Vyatka State University (Kirov, 610000, Moscovskaya Str, 36), Ph.D., associate professor, expert in the field of polymer composites. E-mail: I.A.Mansurova@yandex.ru.

 

Burkov Andrey — Vyatka State University (Kirov, 610000, Moscovskaya Str, 36), Ph.D., associate professor, expert in the field of thermal studies of polymer materials. E-mail: andrey_burkov@mail.ru.

 

Isupova Olga — Vyatka State University (Kirov, 610000, Moscovskaya Str, 36), postgraduate student. E-mail: samaya11111@mail.ru.

 

Zagrai Iraida — Vyatka State University (Kirov, 610000, Moscovskaya Str, 36), Ph.D., associate professor at the Department of engineering physics, expert in the field of radiation heat transfer in disperse systems. E-mail: ZagrayIA@yandex.ru.

 

Khlebov Aleksei — Vyatka State University (Kirov, 610000, Moscovskaya Str, 36), Ph.D., associate professor, head of the Department of engineering physics, expert in the field of solidstate physics. E-mail: ag_hlebov@vyatsu.ru.

 

Durnev Evgeny — Vyatka State University (Kirov, 610000, Moscovskaya Str, 36), assistant, department of Biotechnology, expert in the field of scanning electron microscopy. E-mail: zordrak_05@mail.ru.

 

Gavrilov Konstantin — Vyatka State University (Kirov, 610000, Moscovskaya Str, 36), Ph.D., associate professor, expert in the field of electron microscopy, E-mail: konstantin745@yandex.ru.

Reference citing

Mansurova I. A., Burkov A. A., Isupova O. Yu., Zagrai I. A., Khlebov A. G., Durnev E. A., Gavrilov K. E. Funkcionalizaciya uglerodnyh nanotrubok tekhnicheskim uglerodom ili polimerami dlya modifikacii dinamicheskih mekhanicheskih svojstv rezin [Functionalization of carbon nanotues by carbon black or polymers to modify the dynamic mechanical properties of rubber]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2017, no. 8, pp. 69 – 80.