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Journal Perspektivnye Materialy 

 
Fatigue strength of ferritic-martensitic 12 % chromium steels  EC-181, EP-823 and vanadium alloy V – 4 Ti – 4 Cr

V. F. Terentyev, V. M. Chernov, A. G. Kolmakov,
D. V. Prosvirnin, G. V. Kopiev,  M. V. Leontyeva-Smirnova,
K. A. Moroz, O. S. Antonova


We investigate static and fatigue strength at room temperature under conditions of repeated stretching of low-activating ferriticmartensitic 12 % chromium steels EC-181 (Fe – 12 Cr – 2 W – V – Ta heat treatment + aging in lead at 600 °C, 3000 h) and
 EP-823 (Fe – 12 Cr – W – V – Ni – Mo – Nb, annealed state) and V – 4 Ti – 4 Cr alloy (heat treatment + aging in lead at 600 °C, 3000  h). It is shown, that for the materials studied there exists a linear relationship between the level of values of the ultimate strength and fatigue limit. The maximum fatigue limit of 600 MPa is observed in steel EC-181 after standard heat treatment and aging in lead at 600 °C, 3000 h, and a minimum of 300 MPa for vanadium and V – 4 Ti – 4 Cr alloy. The fatigue fracture mechanism for all materials studied is mostly viscous. The fatigue crack originates near the surface, and the place of its origin is sometimes clusters of nonmetallic inclusions. The propagation of fatigue cracks is associated with the formation of a typical streation relief. Significant differences in the relief surface of the destruction of samples after standard heat treatment and aged in liquid lead are not observed.

 

Keywords: ferritic-martensitic chromium steels EC-181 and EP-823, alloy V-4Ti-4Cr, heat treatment, aging, mechanical properties, fatigue strength, fracture mechanisms.

Terentyev Vladimir — A.A. Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science RAS (119991, Russia, Moscow, Leninsky Prospekt 49), professor, Dr Sci (Eng), chief research officer, specialist in the field of mechanical properties of metallic materials. E-mail: fatig@mail.ru.

 

Chernov Vyacheslav — Atomic Energy Committee Rosatom, High-tech Scientific Research Institute of Inorganic Materials named after academician A.A. Bochvar (123098, Russia, Moscow, POBox 369), professor, Dr Sci (Phys-Math), chief research officer, specialist in the field of physical and mechanical properties of materials and radiation materials. E-mail: VMChernov@bochvar.ru.

 

Kolmakov Aleksey — A.A. Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science RAS (119991, Russia, Moscow, Leninsky Prospekt 49), corresponding member of RAS, deputy Director, specialist in the field of materials science. E-mail: kolmakov@imet.ac.ru.

 

Prosvirnin Dmitry — A.A. Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science RAS (119991, Russia, Moscow, Leninsky Prospekt 49), Ph.D., senior researcher, specialist in the field of mechanical properties of metallic materials. E-mail: fatig@mail.ru.

Kopiev Grigory — A.A. Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science RAS (119991, Russia, Moscow, Leninsky Prospekt 49), engineer-researcher, specialist in the fundamentals of creating new metal, ceramic and composite materials. E-mail: saarler@gmail.com.

 

Leontief-Smirnova Maria — Atomic Energy Committee Rosatom, High-tech Scientific Research Institute of Inorganic Materials named after academician A.A. Bochvar (123098, Russia, Moscow, PO Box 369), associate professor, candidate of technical sciences, specialist in the development of materials for nuclear engineering and radiation material science, E-mail: MVLeonteva-Svirnova@bochvar.ru.

 

Moroz Kirill — Atomic Energy Committee Rosatom, High-tech Scientific Research Institute of Inorganic Materials named after academician A.A. Bochvar (123098, Russia, Moscow, PO Box 369), engineer-technologist, specialist in the field of mechanical properties of metallic materials, E-mail: VMChernov@bochvar.ru.

 

Antonova Olga — A.A. Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science RAS (Moscow, 119334, Leninsky Prospect, 49), junior researcher, specialist in the field of materials science of ceramic and cement materials. E-mail: osantonova@yandex.ru.

 

Reference citing

Terentyev V. F., Chernov V. M., Kolmakov A. G., Prosvirnin D. V., Kopiev G. V.,
Leontyeva-Smirnova M. V., Moroz K. A., Antonova O. S. Ustalostnaya prochnost' ferritno-martensitnyh 12 %-h hromistyh stalej EHK-181, EHP-823 i vanadievogo splava V – 4 Ti – 4 Cr [Fatigue strength of ferritic-martensitic 12 % chromium steels EC-181, EP-823 and vanadium alloy V – 4 Ti – 4 Cr]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2017, no. 7, pp. 5 – 17.

 
Catalysts M/Gd0.1Ti0.1Zr0.1Ce0.7O2,
where M — Pt, Pd, Pt – Pd,  in CO oxidation

E. Yu. Liberman, I. V. Zagaynov, E. A. Koneva


The samples, in which nanosized solid solution Gd0.1Ti0.1Zr0.1Ce0.7O2 was used as a support and Pd, Pt, Pd – Pt were as an active site, were obtained. Synthesis of the support was carried out by co-precipitation method with sonication. As a precursor of platinum group metals acetylacetonates of palladium and platinum were used. Identification of the samples was carried out by XRD, EDS, TEM, and low-temperature nitrogen adsorption-desorption methods. The catalytic activity of obtained samples in the CO oxidation was measured by the flow method. Palladium-containing sample was the most active. The temperature of complete CO oxidation increased in the following order: Pd > Pd – Pt > Pt. Synthesized catalysts are of interest in the detoxification processes of gaseous emissions.

 

Keywords: ceria, solid solution, palladium, platinum, CO oxidation.

Liberman Elena — D. Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of Russia (Moscow, 125047, Miusskaya sq. 9) PhD, associate professor, specialist in the design of materials for environmental application. E-mail: el-liberman@mail.ru.

 

Zagaynov Igor — A.A. Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science (Moscow, 119334, Leninskii pr., 49), PhD, senior staff scientist, specialist in the design of materials for environmental application. E-mail: igorscience@gmail.com.

 

Koneva Elena — D. Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, MSc student, specialist in the design of materials for environmental application. E-mail: lenakoneva2009@yandex.ru.

Reference citing

Liberman E. Yu., Zagaynov I. V., Koneva E. A. Katalizatory M/Gd0,1Ti0,1Zr0,1Ce0,7O2, gde M — Pt, Pd, Pt – Pd, v reakcii okisleniya SO [Catalysts M/Gd0.1Ti0.1Zr0.1Ce0.7O2, where M — Pt, Pd, Pt – Pd, in CO oxidation]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2017, no. 7, pp. 18 – 23.

 
Rare-earth elements effect on the structural-phase state  of  Mo – Si – X in situ composites (X = Sc, Y, Nd)

 


L. Yu. Udoeva, V. M. Chumarev, A. V. Larionov,
S. V. Zhidovinova, S. N. Tyushnyakov
 


The paper presents the results of the investigation of the microstructure and phase composition of Mo – Si alloys doped with Sc, Y or Nd. The main phase constituents, their volume contents, forms of presence and interfacial distribution of rare-earth alloy elements (REE) have been determined by the X-ray phase analysis (XRD), electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). It was shown that when a Sc, Y or Nd (up to 3.0 at. %) is introduced into a Mo – 15.3 at.% Si hypoeutectic alloy, a structure becomes proper in situ composites consisting of a solid solution based on α-Mo and a strengthening silicide phase, containing of Mo3Si and particles of complex composition enriched with REE. The introduction of alloying additives greatly increases the dispersity of the microstructure and changes the morphology of the metal particles and the silicide phase, raises the Moss/Mo3Si volume ratio. The microhardness of the structural components is determined and the parameters of the elementary cells of the main phases were estimated for the REE- doped alloys under study. Found regularities of their variation on the whole are consistent with the conclusions about the nature of the REE effect on the structural-phase state of Mo – Si hypoeutectic composites.

 

Key words: Mo – Si in situ composite, hypoeutectic composition, doping, yttrium, scandium, neodymium, phase composition, microstructure.

Udoeva Liudmila — Institute of Metallurgy of the Ural Branch of the RAS (2001, ekaterinburg, Amundsen str., 101), Ph.D (engineering), senior researcher, specialist in chemistry and metallurgy of rare metal alloys. E-mail: lyuud@yandex.ru.

 

Chumarev Vladimir — Institute of Metallurgy of the Ural Branch of the RAS (2001, ekaterinburg, Amundsen str., 101), Dr Sci (engineering), professor, chief researcher, specialist in physical chemistry and technology of rare metals. E-mail: pcmlab@mail.ru.

 

Larionov Alexey — Institute of Metallurgy of the Ural Branch of the RAS (2001, ekaterinburg, Amundsen str., 101), researcher, specialist in reduction processes in metallurgy of ligature. E-mail: a.v.larionov@ya.ru.

Zhidovinova Svetlana — Institute of Metallurgy of the Ural Branch of the RAS (2001, ekaterinburg, Amundsen str., 101), Ph.D (chem.), senior researcher, specialist in -ray diffraction analysis and metallography. E-mail: zhysv@yandex.ru.

 

Tyushnyakov Stanislav — Institute of Metallurgy of the Ural Branch of the RAS (2001, ekaterinburg, Amundsen str., 101), researcher, specialist in high-temperature synthesis of refractory materials. E-mail: tyushnyakov.sn@gmail.com.

Reference citing

Udoeva L. Yu., Chumarev V. M., Larionov A. V., Zhidovinova S. V., Tyushnyakov S. N. Vliyanie redkozemel'nyh ehlementov na strukturno-fazovoe sostoyanie in situ kompozitov Mo – Si – X (X = Sc, Y, Nd) [Rare-earth elements effect on the structural-phase state of Mo – Si – X in situ composites (X = Sc, Y, Nd)]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2017, no. 7, pp. 24 – 33.

 
The use of pulsed laser deposition in reactive gases  for preparation of an effective hybrid MoSx/WOy  hydrogen evolution catalyst

V. N. Nevolin, S. N. Grigoriev, V. Yu. Fominski, R. I. Romanov, 
M. A. Volosova, D. V. Fominski


To obtain a thin film electrocatalyst containing nanostructured layers of WOy and MoSx, the films of tungsten oxide and molybdenum sulfide were sequentially formed by pulsed laser deposition of W and Mo metals in rarefied air and hydrogen sulphide, respectively. The pressure of the reactive gaseous medium and the temperature of a substrate (glassy carbon) were varied during and after the deposition. The films of WOy possessing different morphologies and structures were obtained, that caused certain variations in the catalytic properties of these films in the reaction of hydrogen evolution in an acidic solution. However, the catalytic activity of the obtained WOy nano-elements (spheres, needles, plates) with an amorphous and crystalline structure proved to be insufficiently high. The additional deposition of MoSx with an amorphous structure caused a qualitative improvement in the catalytic properties. The sulfur atoms in the amorphous MoSx matrix facilitated to the formation of catalytically active sites, and the large surface area of WOy provided an increase in the total active area of the catalyst. The penetration of hydrogen effectively formed on MoSx into the volume of the WOy films stipulated the necessary condition for electrocatalysis - low resistance of a support layer to current transport.

 

Keywords: tungsten oxide, molybdenum sulphide, pulsed laser deposition, amorphous structure, electrocatalyst, hydrogen evolution

Nevolin Vladimir — National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Kashirskoe sh., 31, Moscow 115409, Russia), Dr Sci, professor of the department of solid state physics and nanosystems, specialist in the physics of thin films and nanostructures. E-mail: nevolin@sci.lebedev.ru.

 

Grigoriev Sergey — Moscow State University of Technology “STANKIN” (Vadkovskii per., 3a, Moscow 127005, Russia), Dr Sci, professor, rector, head of department, specialist in the design and creation of high-tech processes for deposition of coatings used for various applications. E-mail: sgrigor@stankin.ru.

 

Fominski Vyacheslav — National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Kashirskoe sh., 31, Moscow 115409, Russia), Dr Sci, professor, chief researcher of solid state physics and nanosystems department, specialist in the physics of thin films, nanostructures and beam surface modification technologies. E-mail: vyfominskij@mephi.ru. 

 

Romanov Roman — National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Kashirskoe sh., 31, Moscow 115409, Russia), PhD, researcher of the department of solid state physics and nanosystems, specialist in the field of physical and chemical methods for preparation and study of thin-film structures for various applications. E-mail: limpo2003@mail.ru.

 

Volosova Marina — Moscow State University of Technology “STANKIN” (Vadkovskii per., 3a, Moscow 127005, Russia), PhD, vice-rector, specialist in the field of efficient methods for obtaining and comprehensive study of multifunctional coatings. E-mail: mvolosova@stankin.ru.

 

Fominski Dmitriy — National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Kashirskoe sh., 31, Moscow 115409, Russia), engineer of the department of solid state physics and nanosystems, specialist in the field of pulsed laser deposition of thin films and nanostructures. E-mail: dmitryfominski@gmail.com.

 

Dzhumaev Pavel — National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Kashirskoe sh., 31, Moscow 115409, Russia), senior lecturer of the department of physical problems of materials science, specialist in the field of electron microscopic methods of materials research. E- mail: dzhumaev_pavel@mail.RU.

Reference citing

Nevolin V. N., Grigoriev S. N., Fominski V. Yu., Romanov R. I., Volosova M. A., Fominski D. V. Primenenie impul'snogo lazernogo osazhdeniya v reaktivnyh gazovyh sredah dlya polucheniya ehffektivnogo gibridnogo MoSx/WOy katalizatora vosstanovleniya vodoroda [The use of pulsed laser deposition in reactive gases for preparation of an effective hybrid MoSx/WOy hydrogen evolution catalyst]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2017, no. 7, pp. 34 – 45.

 
The synthesis of composites based on functionalized carbon nanotubes and polyaniline

T. P. Dyachkova, I. V. Anosova, A. G. Tkachev, N. A. Chapaksov


The regularities of modifying by polyaniline the surface of pre-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes are studied. The influence of the method and degree of functionalization of carbon nanotubes on the course of oxidative polymerization of aniline was studied. The correlation between the maximum value on the temperature curve of this reaction, the yield of its target product and the depth of preliminary oxidation of CNTs is shown. Using the methods of transmission electron microscopy, infrared Fourier and Raman spectroscopy, the morphological characteristics and composition of the forming modifying layer are established. The nature of the dependence of the electrically conducting properties of the obtained composites and the magnitude of their specific surface on the degree of preliminary functionalization of carbon nanotubes by carboxyl groups is shown. The minimum resistivity (0.3 Ohm⋅cm) is observed for composites based on carboxylated carbon nanotubes with a degree of functionalization of 0.2 mmol/g. Materials with the maximum specific surface area (more than 170 m2/g) were obtained using carbon nanotubes oxidized by concentrated nitric acid as the substrate for the precipitation of polyaniline. On the basis of experimental studies, a choice of the type of functionalized carbon nanotubes during the modification with polyaniline for the use of synthesized composites as electrode materials and effective adsorbents was substantiated.


Keywords: polyaniline, functionalization, carbon nanotubes.

Dyachkova Tatyana — Tambov State Technical University (Tambov, 392000, Sovetskaya str., 106), Dr Sci (Chem), associate professor of the department “Technology and methods of nanoproducts manufacturing”, skilled in the functionalization and modification of carbon nanomaterials. E-mail: dyachkova_tp@mail.ru.


Anosova Irina — Tambov State Technical University (Tambov, 392000, Sovetskaya str., 106), graduate student of the department “Technology and Methods of Nanoproducts Manufacturing”, skilled in the modification of carbon nanomaterials by polyaniline. E-mail: anosowa_i_w@mail.ru.


Tkachev Alexey — Tambov State Technical University (Tambov, 392000, Sovetskaya str., 106), Dr Sci (Eng), professor, head of the department “Technology and Methods of Nanoproducts Manufacturing”, specialist in the field of synthesis and practical applications of carbon nanostructures. E-mail: nanotam@yandex.ru.


Chapaksov Nikolay — Tambov State Technical University (Tambov, 392000, Sovetskaya str., 106), undergraduate of the department “Technology and Methods of Nanoproducts Manufacturing”, skilled in diagnostics of the properties of carbon nanomaterials. E-mail: tchapaxov.nikolaj@yandex.ru.

Reference citing

Dyachkova T. P., Anosova I. V., Tkachev A. G., Chapaksov N. A. Sintez kompozitov na osnove funkcionalizirovannyh uglerodnyh nanotrubok i polianilina [The synthesis of composites based on functionalized carbon nanotubes and polyaniline]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2017, no. 7, pp. 46 – 53.

 
Liquid phase method optimization of composite  Cu – W alloys synthesis

L. E. Bodrova, E. Y. Goyda, E. A. Pastukhov, V. P. Chentsov


Composite alloys Cu – W are synthesized using liquid-phase impregnation method. Non-compacted W-powders and sintered porous W, W + Cu specimens are used in the synthesis processes. Those alloys structure, as well as its dependence on precrystallization processing by low-frequency oscillation (LFO) of “Cu melt + W powder” compositions, is investigated. Technological parameters of low porosity (1 – 2 %) alloys producing are defined. It was proved, that thermo-time LFO-exposure varying allows modify the W concentration in the matrix, creating composite layers with high (80 – 90 %) tungsten content. The LFO treatment of the “copper melt + non-compacted W-powders” compositions has a number of advantages compare to routine (liquid-phase impregnation of compacted tungsten powder) industrial technology of Cu – W alloys production. Those are: significant reduction of stages (up to 1 – 2), the possibility of replacement of working atmospheres (hydrogen, vacuum) by cheaper “argon + CO”, as well as the dispersing of W-phase.

 

Keywords: composite alloy, liquid phase impregnation, non-compacted powders, low frequency processing, structure, porosity.

Bodrova Lyudmila — Institute of metallurgy Ural Branch of RAS (620016, Yekaterinburg, Amundsen str., 101), PhD (chemical), senior researcher, specialist in the development and research of the structure and properties of composite materials. E-mail: berseneval@mail.ru.

Goyda Eduard — Institute of metallurgy Ural Branch of RAS (620016, Yekaterinburg, Amundsen str., 101), PhD (chemical), researcher, specialist in the development and research of the structure and properties of composite materials. E-mail: eddy-g0d@yandex.ru.

Pastukhov Eduard — Institute of metallurgy Ural Branch of RAS (620016, Yekaterinburg, Amundsen str., 101), corresponding member of RAS, Dr Sci (Chem), specialist in the field of metallic and ionic melts physical chemistry. E-mail: eduard.pastuhov.34@mail.ru.

Chentsov Victor — Institute of metallurgy Ural Branch of RAS (620016, Yekaterinburg, Amundsen str., 101), PhD eng), senior researcher, specialist in the field of interfacial properties of the metallurgical melts. E-mail: vpc44@mail.ru.

Reference citing

Bodrova L. E., Goyda E. Y., Pastukhov E. A., Chentsov V. P. Optimizaciya sposobov zhidkofaznogo polucheniya kompozicionnyh splavov Cu – W [Liquid phase method optimization of composite Cu – W alloys synthesis]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2017, no. 7, pp. 54 – 61.

 
Properties of composite electrolytic coating nickel-cobaltaluminium oxide-fluoroplastic

 

V. I. Balakai, K. V. Murzenko, A. V. Arzumanova, I. V. Balakai


The method of obtaining composite electrolytic coatings (CEC) based on the nickel-cobalt-aluminum oxide system possessing high performance properties is considered in the work, since in engineering, automotive, instrument making and other industries, much attention is paid to the development of new materials possessing increased physical-mechanical properties. The use of such CEC will not only increase the reliability, durability of new machine parts and mechanisms, restore old, but in many cases replace defective alloyed steel and cast iron with cheaper metals. The article suggests a chloride electrolyte for the application of wear-corrosion-resistant CEC nickel-cobalt-aluminum oxide-fluoroplastic. The effect of electrolysis regimes on the composition of the electrolyte, the concentration of alloying components on the physical and mechanical properties (wear resistance, corrosion resistance, microhardness, internal stresses, porosity, adhesion) of nickel-cobalt-alumina-fluoroplastic coatings was studied. The use of such coatings will expand the scope of their use as a wear and corrosion resistant coating in various friction nodes.

 

Key words: firmness to wear, firmness to corrosion, micro-hardness, internal stress, adhesion, composite coating, chloride electrolyte, nickel-cobalt-aluminium oxide-fluoroplastic system, coating property.

Balakai Vladimir — Platov South-Russian State Polytechnic University (NPI, 346428, Rostov region, Novocherkassk, Enlightenment st., 132), Dr Sci (eng), professor, dean of Technologic Faculty, specialist in electrolytic deposition of metals, alloys and composite coatings. E-mail: balakaivi@rambler.ru.

 

Murzenko Kseniy — Platov South-Russian State Polytechnic University (NPI, 346428, Rostov region, Novocherkassk, Enlightenment st., 132), graduate student, specialist in electrolytic deposition of metals, alloys and composite coatings. E-mail: murzenko1405i@yandex.ru.

 

Arzumanova Anna — Platov South-Russian State Polytechnic University (NPI, 346428, Rostov region, Novocherkassk, Enlightenment st., 132), PhD (eng), associate professor of Standardization certification and quality management department, specialist in electrolytic deposition of metals, alloys and composite coatings. E-mail: arzumanova2016@yandex.ru.

 

Balakai Ilya — Platov South-Russian State Polytechnic University (NPI, 346428, Rostov region, Novocherkassk, Enlightenment st., 132), master of science, specialist in electrolytic deposition of metals, alloys and composite coatings.  E-mail: IlyaBALAKAY@sca.com.

Reference citing

Balakai V. I., Murzenko K. V., Arzumanova A. V., Balakai I. V. Svojstva kompozicionnogo ehlektroliticheskogo pokrytiya nikel' – kobal't – oksid alyuminiya – ftoroplast [Properties of composite electrolytic coating nickel-cobalt-aluminium oxide-fluoroplastic]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2017, no. 7, pp. 62 – 70.

 
Approximate strength calculation of volumetric reinforced carbon composite material with 3D and 4D-L structures

A. K. Churusov, G. G. Zaitsev, A. A. Konyushenkov


In this article the approximate strength calculation results in the reinforcement direction and between them (misalignment) are given for the volumetric reinforced carbon composite material with 3D and 4D-L structures, based on the polymer matrix. Flat and three-dimensional strength diagrams of the above materials are provided. It is shown that in the misalignment directions (at an angle to reinforcement direction) and in the reinforcement directions the strength properties of 3D reinforcement are similar. Material with 4D-L reinforcement is characterized by a lower strength in the Z axis direction (due to a low carbon rods filling), calculated as about 0.86 of the strength in the directions of the other axes reinforcement and misalignment. Also sample forms for determining the mechanical characteristics in the direction of misalignment are recommended. Tensile tests results of a material with a 3D structure with calculations.

 

Keywords: Carbon composite materials, 3D and 4D-L reinforcement schemes, disorientation, mechanical properties, strength diagrams.

Churusov Andrew — JSC State Research Institute of Constructional Materials Graphite “NIIGRAFIT” (111524 Moscow, Elektrodnaya st., 2), Ph.D., head of the department, expert in the reinforcing structures for the composite materials development and manufacturing. E-mail: churusov@nokotech.com.

 

Zaytsev Herman — JSC State Research Institute of Constructional Materials Graphite “NIIGRAFIT” (111524 Moscow, Elektrodnaya st., 2), research fellow, expert in the field of carbon and composite materials based on carbon fiber fillers deformation mechanics. E-mail: gerzajcev@ yandex.ru.

 

Konyushenkov Andrew — JSC State Research Institute of Constructional Materials Graphite “NIIGRAFIT” (111524 Moscow, Elektrodnaya st., 2), deputy head of the test center, expert in the field of carbon and composite materials based on carbon fiber fillers deformation mechanics. E-mail: konju@yandex.ru.

Reference citing

Churusov A. K., Zaitsev G. G., Konyushenkov A. A. Priblizhennyj raschet prochnosti ob"emno armirovannyh uglerodnyh kompozicionnyh materialov s 3D i 4D-L strukturami [Approximate strength calculation of volumetric reinforced carbon composite material with 3D and 4D-L structures]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2017, no. 7, pp. 71 – 79.