Some problems of hydrogen in reactor structural materials.
 A review

I. I. Chernov, M. S. Staltsov, B. A. Kalin, L. Yu. Guseva

The paper contains a description of some problems of hydrogen in the main reactor structural materials. Zirconium alloys, steels, vanadium alloys as well as the synergetic effect of hydrogen and helium on the radiation resistance are considered in paper. The main sources of hydrogen isotopes accumulation are considered in reactor materials. At relatively low temperatures, the causes and consequences of hydride embrittlement of zirconium alloys are presented. It is shown that hydrogen can cause embrittlement of the vessel steels too due to the weakening of the interatomic bond forces and stabilize by them the radiation-induced defects. It demonstrated that hydrogen at the presence of helium behaves as a gas that enhances the irradiation effect on the microstructure and properties of materials in many cases. The irradiation with simultaneous introduction of hydrogen and helium causes the catastrophic swelling of the chromium steels and vanadium alloys, in particular, and for austenitic steel effect is less pronounced.

Keywords: zirconium alloys, reactor steels, vanadium based alloys, hydrogen, hydrogen embrittlement, synergistic effect of helium and hydrogen, radiation swelling.

Chernov Ivan — National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (115409, Russia, Moscow, Kashirskoe shosse, 31), Dr.Sci., professor, specialist in the field of solid state physics and materials science. E-mail: i_chernov@mail.ru.

Staltsov Maxim — National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (115409, Russia, Moscow, Kashirskoe shosse, 31), Ph.D., associate professor, specialist in the field of solid state physics and materials science. E-mail: m.staltsov@gmail.com.

Kalin Boris — National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (115409, Russia, Moscow, Kashirskoe shosse, 31), Dr.Sci, professor, head of department, specialist in the field of solid state physics and materials science.E-mail: BAkalin@mephi.ru.

Guseva Lyubov — National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (115409, Russia, Moscow, Kashirskoe shosse, 31), postgraduate student, specialist in the field of solid state physics. E-mail: guseva.l.yu@yandex.ru.

Reference citing

Chernov I. I., Staltsov M. S., Kalin B. A., Guseva L. Yu. Nekotorye problemy vodoroda v reaktornyh konstrukcionnyh materialah. Obzor [Some problems of hydrogen in reactor structural materials. A review]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2017, no. 4, pp. 5 – 15.

 
Electrophysical study of methyl methacrylate reinforced
with carbon nanotubes

I. V. Zaporotskova, M. B. Belonenko, L. S. Elbakyan

The research deals with the results of the measurements of some electrophysical characteristics of a new composite polymer based on polymethyl methacrylate obtained by doping carbon nanotubes. The choice of polymer matrix is due to the high popularity  and the usage in various fields of industry and technology,  also  the choice is due to the proven improvement of its strength characteristics when  it interacts with carbon tubes.   The issues related to the behavior of the conductivity of the composite in alternating electric field are studied. It is given the description of  the way of production of a composite polymer material such as PMMA, doped CNTS, by adding to the polymer nanotubes in an amount of 0.1 wt.% and mixing under the influence of ultrasonic waves at room temperature. It is studied the conductivity of the produced polymer nanocomposite samples  with the  difference of potential  in the range of –1 to 20 V with frequencies of 200 kHz, 300 kHz and 400 kHz. It is discovered non-linear dependence of conductivity of the nanocomposite from the potential difference for different frequencies. It is given theoretical explanation of the obtained experimental results, taking into account that the nanotubes integrated into the  polymer matrix,  act as an additional resistance which is connected in parallel to the existing resistor matrix  in the structure of the polymer. The obtained results allow to predict the possibility of usage of  the nanocomposites based on PMMA, doped carbon nanotubes as a  material  for  nanoelectronic devices  with the predicted change of the conductivity, and the obtained regularities can be used for  controlling the quality  of  the samples and  for establishing  the percentage content of CNTS in them according to the current-voltage characteristics taken in different frequency domain.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, polymethylmethacrylate, polymer nanocomposites, electrophysical researches, conductivity, voltage, frequency.

Zaporotskova Irina — Volgograd State University (Volgograd, 400062, Universitetskiy prospect 100), DrSci (Phys-Math), professor, director of Institute of Priority Technologies, Volgograd State University. E-mail: irinazaporotskova@gmail.com.

Belonenko Michail — Volgograd State University (Volgograd, 400062, Universitetskiy prospect 100), Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Professor of Forensic Expertise and Physical Materials Science. E-mail:   mbelonenko@yandex.ru.

Elbakyan Lusine — Volgograd State University (Volgograd, 400062, Universitetskiy prospect 100), Department of Forensic Expertise and Physical Materials Science. E-mail: lusniak-e@yandex.ru.

Reference citing

Zaporotskova I. V., Belonenko M. B., Elbakyan L. S. Elektrofizicheskie issledovaniya nanokompozitov na osnove polimetilmetakrilata, dopirovannogo uglerodnymi nanotrubkami [Electrophysical study of methyl methacrylate reinforced with carbon nanotubes]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2017, no. 4, pp. 16 – 22.

 
High porous bioceramics based on octacalcium phosphate

A. Yu. Fedotov, I. V. Smirnov, S. M. Barinov, V. S. Komlev

The method of obtaining highly porous ceramics by chemical transformation of ceramics based on α-tricalciumphosphate (TCP) to dicalciumphocphate dihydrate (DCPD) followed by hydrolysis to octacalcium (OCP) phosphate was explored. This method gives an opportunity to get monophase OCPas well as biphasic calcium phosphate with different ratio of α-TCP/DCPD or DCPD/OCP. The microstructure and mechanical properties depending on the phase composition and processes in held conditions were studied. Using this method leads to increasing of compressive strength up to 7 times more because of morphological modifications inside the crystals.

Keywords: biomaterials, porous ceramics, tricalcium phosphate, dicalciumphosphate dehydrate, octacalcium phosphate, bone surgery.

Fedotov Aleksander — Institution of Russian Academy of Sciences A.A. Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Material Science RAS (119334 Moscow, Lenenskiy pr., 49), Ph.D., senior researcher, expert in the field of biomaterials. E-mail: antishurik@mail.ru.

Smirnov Igor — Institution of Russian Academy of Sciences A.A. Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Material Science RAS (119334 Moscow, Lenenskiy pr., 49), research assistant, expert in the field of biomaterials. E-mail: baldyriz@gmail.com.

Barinov Sergei — Institution of Russian Academy of Sciences A.A. Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Material Science RAS (119334 Moscow, Lenenskiy pr., 49), a.m. RAS, head of laboratory, expert in the field of materials science. E-mail: barinov_s@mail.ru.

Komlev Vladimir — Institution of Russian Academy of Sciences A.A. Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Material Science RAS (119334 Moscow, Lenenskiy pr., 49), a.m. RAS, Deputy director for science, expert in the field of biomaterials.E-mail: komlev@mail.ru.

Reference citing

Fedotov A. Yu., Smirnov I. V., Barinov S. M., Komlev V. S. Vysokoporistaya biokeramika na osnove oktakal'cievogo fosfata [High porous bioceramics based on octacalcium phosphate]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2017, no. 4, pp. 23 – 28.

 
Modification of epoxy matrix by whiskers of potassium polytitanate
A. S. Mostovoi, A. N. Ledenev, L. G. Panova

 

Studies have shown the possibility of directional control performance properties of epoxy composites by the use of small additions of whiskers of potassium polytitanate, introduction of plasticizers multifunctional action and methods of chemical and mechanical activation of composition components and the composition as a whole. These provide the creation of epoxy composites of next-generation with high performance (breaking stress and flexural modulus — 96 and 3150 MPa, compressive breaking stress — 95 MPa, the toughness — 18 kJ/m2). In addition, the influence of potassium polytitanate whiskers on processes of structure formation of epoxy resin is established. It shows an increase of the gel time formation from 45 to 64 minutes and the curing time from 53 to 104 minutes.

Keywords: Epoxy resin, modification, whiskers of potassium polytitanate, physico-mechanical properties.

Mostovoy Anton — Engels Technological Institute, branch of Yuri Gagarin State Technical University of Saratov (413100, Saratov region, Engels, Liberty Square, 17), PhD (eng), head of the laboratory Modern methods of research of functional materials and systems, specialist in the field of creation of epoxy composites with high operational properties and reduced flammability. Е-mail: Mostovoy19@rambler.ru.

Ledenev Aleksandr — Engels Technological Institute, branch of Yuri Gagarin State Technical University of Saratov (413100, Saratov region, Engels, Liberty Square, 17), 4th year student of department Chemical technology, specialized in the field of creation of epoxy composites with high operational properties. E-mail: xt@techn.sstu.ru.

Panova Lidiya — Engels Technological Institute, branch of Yuri Gagarin State Technical University of Saratov (413100, Saratov region, Engels, Liberty Square, 17), DrSci (chem), professor, chair of Chemical Technology department, specialist in the field of development of scientific foundations of the directed regulation of structure and properties of polymers and composites. E-mail: xt@techn.sstu.ru.

Reference citing

Mostovoi A. S., Ledenev A. N., Panova L. G. Modifikaciya ehpoksidnyh matric viskerami polititanata kaliya [Modification of epoxy matrix by whiskers of potassium polytitanate]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2017, no. 4, pp. 29 – 34.

 
Rheological behavior of composit stuffs on the basis
of random polypropylene and vezuvian

N. T. Kakhramanov, N. B. Arzumanova, V. C. Osipchik,
A. M. Guliyev

This paper presents the results of a study of the strength and rheological characteristics of filled thermoplastic composites based on statistical ethylene-propylene copolymer (random polypropylene), and natural mineral filler — vesuviane. Introduction of vesuviane into the polymer leads to increasing on breaking stress with a maximum at 10% by weight of its contents. It is shown that, contrary to generally accepted ideas, the introduction of vesuviane into the polymer matrix improves melt flow of composite material. For the interpretation of observed facts was conducted X-ray diffraction analysis of the structure of composite, were investigated the rheological flow characteristics of polymer composites: the dependence of the shear rate and molten viscosity on the shear stress and temperature, the activation energy of viscous flow and universal temperature-invariant characteristic of viscous properties of polymer composites. Rheological investigations of melting polymer materials were performed on the MELT FLOW TESTER, CEAST MF50 (INSTRON, Italy), at the temperature range of 190 – 250 °C and in the range of loads — 2.16 – 21.6 kg.

Keywords: rheology, viscosity, share rate, share stress.

Kahramanov Najaf Tofig — Institute of Polymer Materials of ANAS (AZ5004, Azerbaijan Republic, Sumgait, S.Vurgun str., 124), DrSci (Chem), professor, head of laboratory Mechano-chemical modification and processing of polymers, specialist in the area of polymer modification with fillers, obtaining compatible polymer-polymer blends, chemical modification of polymers, establishing the relationship between structure and properties of the polymeric materials. E-mail: najaf1946@rambler.ru.

Arzumanova Nushaba Baba — Institute of Polymer Materials of ANAS (AZ5004, Azerbaijan Republic, Sumgait, S.Vurgun str., 124), research associate of the laboratory of Mechano-chemical modification and processing of polymers, specialist in the area of mechano-chemical modification of polymers with mineral fillers. E-mail: arzumanova-nushaba@rambler.ru.

Osipchik Vladimir — D.Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of Russia (125047 Moscow, Miusskaya sq., 9), DrSci (eng), professor, head of the department of Polymer processing technology, specialist in the area of chemistry and technology of preparation and study of composite polymer materials, plastic processing technology. E-mail: vosip@muctr.ru.

Guliyev Abbasgulu Mammad — Institute of Polymer Materials of ANAS (AZ5004, Azerbaijan Republic, Sumgait, S.Vurgun str., 124), member-correspondent of ANAS, DrSci (chem), professor, head of the laboratory, specialist in the area of chemical modification of polymers, preparation and research of polymeric composite materials. E-mail: abasqulu@yandex.ru.

Reference citing

Kakhramanov N. T., Arzumanova N. B., Osipchik V. C., Guliyev A. M. Reologicheskie svojstva kompozitnyh materialov na osnove random polipropilena i vezuviana [Rheological behavior of composit stuffs on the basis of random polypropylene and vezuvian]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2017, no. 4, pp. 35 – 43.

 
Remote processing of metals with an increased laser
radiation intensity

S. V. Gvozdev, A. F. Glova, G. G. Gladush, V. Yu. Dubrovskii,
 S. T. Durmanov, A. G. Krasyukov, A. Yu. Lysikov,
G. V. Smirnov, V. M. Pleshkov

Application of laser radiation with radiation wavelength of 1.07 μ and radiation intensity of ~104 W/cm2, used on the emergency gas wells for remote cutting of metals, can be not efficient on the emergency oil wells along of large value of the mean radiation absorption coefficient ~0.1 cm–1 by the oil flame. It was shown, that at propagation through given flame of the radiation with an increased to 105 W/cm2 intensity, the absorption coefficient rapidly decreases and in intensity range of 105 – 106 W/cm2 stabilizes on a very small level equal to 5∙10-3 -10-2 cm–1. Experimental investigations of the conditions of remote cutting of metal plates with a thickness from 1.5 mm to 60 mm by radiation of cw ytterbium fibre laser with a power up to 7.5 kW at radiation intensity on the metal surface 105 – 106 W/cm2 have been performed. It was found that in a majority of the practically important cases such main factors as drilling time, maximal velocity and cutting efficiency exceed the factors at the intensity ≤ 104 W/cm2.

Keywords: remote processing; radiation intensity; efficiency.

Gvozdev Sergey — State Research Center of Russian Federation Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (CA SRC RF TRINITI, Russia, Moscow, Troitsk, 142190, Pushkovykh street, 12), research worker, specialist in the field of interaction of laser radiation with material. E-mail: gsv@triniti.ru.

Glova Alexander — State Research Center of Russian Federation Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (CA SRC RF TRINITI, Russia, Moscow, Troitsk, 142190, Pushkovykh street, 12); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Russia, Moscow, 115409, Kashirskoye shosse, 31), professor, Dr Sci, head of laboratory, specialist in physics of low temperature plasma and lasers, interaction of laser radiation with materials. E-mail: afglova@triniti.ru.

Gladush Gennady — State Research Center of Russian Federation Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (CA SRC RF TRINITI, Russia, Moscow, Troitsk, 142190, Pushkovykh street, 12); Institute on Laser and Information Technologies of the RAS (ILIT RAS, Russia, Shatura, Moscow region, 140700, Svyatoozerskaya street, 1), DrSci (phys-math), professor, chief scientific researcher, specialist in the field of plasma processes and laser materials processing. E-mail: gladush@triniti.ru.

Dubrovskii Vladimir — State Research Center of Russian Federation Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (CA SRC RF TRINITI, Russia, Moscow, Troitsk, 142190, Pushkovykh street, 12), research worker, specialist in the field of laser interaction with material.

Durmanov Sergei — State Research Center of Russian Federation Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (CA SRC RF TRINITI, Russia, Moscow, Troitsk, 142190, Pushkovykh street, 12), PhD, head of laboratory, specialist in  fiber lasers. E-mail:
durmanov@triniti.ru.

Krasyukov Alexander — State Research Center of Russian Federation Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (CA SRC RF TRINITI, Russia, Moscow, Troitsk, 142190, Pushkovykh street, 12), PhD, first deputy director of the division, specialist in the field of laser technique and laser technology. E-mail: krasukov@triniti.ru.

Lysikov Alexei — State Research Center of Russian Federation Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (CA SRC RF TRINITI, Russia, Moscow, Troitsk, 142190, Pushkovykh street, 12), PhD, senior researcher, specialist in physics of low temperature plasma and lasers, interaction of laser radiation with materials. E-mail: lysikov@triniti.ru.

Smirnov Gennadiy — State Research Center of Russian Federation Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (CA SRC RF TRINITI, Russia, Moscow, Troitsk, 142190, Pushkovykh street, 12), senior researcher, specialist in numerical simulation of optical and laser systems. E-mail: smirgen@triniti.ru.

Pleshkov Vladimir — State Research Center of Russian Federation Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (CA SRC RF TRINITI, Russia, Moscow, Troitsk, 142190, Pushkovykh street, 12), leading engineer, head of MLTK complex, specialist in laser technique and laser technology.

Reference citing

Gvozdev S. V., Glova A. F., Gladush G. G., Dubrovskii V. Yu., Durmanov S. T.,
Krasyukov A. G., Lysikov A. Yu., Smirnov G. V., Pleshkov V. M. Distancionnaya rezka metallov lazernym izlucheniem povyshennoj intensivnosti [Remote processing of metals with an increased laser radiation intensity]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2017, no. 4, pp. 44 – 54.

 
Use of oil waste for production of porous heat-resistant concretes on phosphate binders

V. Z. Abdrakhimov, E. S. Abdrakhimova

Oil and petrochemical wastes are the most ecologically hazardous branches of a national economy, as the increase in their productions are accompanied by the growth of oil and petrochemical contamination. This causes increase in environmental risks, reduction of areas of commercial land, reduction of soil fertility and deterioration in the health of the population. The use of waste oil production and high-alumina petrochemical waste nanotechnology on the basis of chemical binders ─ phosphoric acid without the use of traditional natural materials allows to obtain a heat-resistant porous concrete with an average density 700 and 800 kg/m3 and a temperature of 1350 – 1500 °С. This material has a high physico-mechanical properties and heat resistance. The use of waste in production cycle allows producing high-quality heat-resistant porous concrete.

Keywords: heat-resistant concrete, waste oil, phosphate binders, high-alumina petrochemical waste, lining and thermal units.

Abdrakhimov Vladimir — Samara State economic University, Department of materials science and engineering (141 Sovetskoi Armii st., Samara, 443090 Russia), professor, DrSci (eng), honorary worker of higher professional education of the RF, specialist in chemical technology of ceramics and refractories, physical and chemical processes during firing of ceramic materials based on industrial wastes. E-mail: 3375892@mail.ru.

Abdrakhimov Elena — Samara National research University (34, Moskovskoye shosse, Samara, 443086, Russia), department of Chemistry, PhD (eng), associate professor, specialist in chemical technology of ceramics and refractories. E-mail: 3375892@mail.ru.

Reference citing

Abdrakhimov V. Z., Abdrakhimova E. S. Ispol'zovanie othodov neftedobychi v proizvodstve zharostojkih porizovannyh betonov na osnove fosfatnogo svyazuyushchego [Use of oil waste for production of porous heat-resistant concretes on phosphate binders]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2017, no. 4, pp. 55 – 64.

 
The impurity composition of the high-purity monoisotopic
germane 73GeH4

A. Yu. Sozin, O. Yu. Chernova, T. G. Sorochkina, A. D. Bulanov,
C. A. Adamchik, L. B. Nushtayeva

The method of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry set the composition and concentration of impurities in isotopically enriched high-purity germane 73GeH4. In fractions 73GeH4, selected during its distillation purification, impurities were identified permanent gases, xenon, carbon dioxide, hydrocarbons C1 – C9, aromatic hydrocarbons, chloroethane, 2-chloropropane, homologues of germane, methylgermane, chlorogermane, carbon disulfide, carbonyl sulfide, 1,4 dioxan, difluorodimethylsilane. Impurities xenon, carbonyl sulfide, 1,4-dioxane and difluorodimethylsilane identified for the first time in germane. It was found that the impurities carbon disulfide and xenon are displaced isotopic composition, impurities methylgermane, homologues of germane and chlorogermane as the main component, are isotopically enriched. The correctness of the analysis was confirmed by varying the value of the sample. Limits of detection of impurities was 1·10–5 – 5·10–8 vol. %

Keywords: isotopically enriched germane, impurities, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, mass spectra, identification.

Sozin Andrei — G.G. Devyatykh Institute of Chemistry of High-Purity Substances of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Russia, Nizhny Novgorod, 603950, Tropinina Str., 49), Ph.D. (Chem.), senior researcher, specialist in the field of analytical chemistry of high-purity volatile substances. E-mail: Sozin@ihps.nnov.ru.

Chernova Ol’ga — G.G. Devyatykh Institute of Chemistry of High-Purity Substances of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Nizhny Novgorod), senior researcher, specialist in the field of analytical chemistry of high-purity volatile substances. E-mail: Chernova@ihps.nnov.ru.

Sorochkina Tat’iana — G.G. Devyatykh Institute of Chemistry of High-Purity Substances of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Nizhny Novgorod), Ph.D. (Chem.), senior researcher, specialist in the field of analytical chemistry of high-purity volatile substances. E-mail: Sorochkina@ihps.nnov.ru.

Bulanov Andrei — G.G. Devyatykh Institute of Chemistry of High-Purity Substances of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Nizhny Novgorod), N.I. Lobachevsky Nizhny Novgorod State University, chemical faculty (Russia, Nizhny Novgorod, Gagarin pr., 23), Dr.Sci. (Chem.), head of laboratory of special purity substances, specialist in the field of chemistry and technology of high-purity substances and materials. E-mail: Bulanov@ihps.nnov.ru.

Adamchik Sergey — G.G. Devyatykh Institute of Chemistry of High-Purity Substances of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Nizhny Novgorod), Ph.D. (Chem.), deputy director for general affairs, specialist in the field of ultrapurification of volatile inorganic hydrides. E-mail: Adamchik@ihps.nnov.ru.

Nushtaeva Ludmila — G.G. Devyatykh Institute of Chemistry of High-Purity Substances of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Nizhny Novgorod), Ph.D. (Tech.), researcher, specialist in the field of analytical chemistry of high-purity volatile substance.

Reference citing

Sozin A. Yu., Chernova O. Yu., Sorochkina T. G., Bulanov A. D.,
Adamchik C. A., Nushtayeva L. B. Primesnyj sostav monoizotopnogo germana 73GeH4 vysokoj chistoty [The impurity composition of the high-purity monoisotopic germane 73GeH4]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2017, no. 4, pp. 65 – 77.

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