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Journal Perspektivnye Materialy 

 
Formation of allotropic modifications of Sb — multi-layer antimonene by spontaneous crystallization of the melt

T. V. Kulikova, L. A. Bityutskaya, A. V. Tuchin, A. A. Averin

Structural and morphological characterization of the surface and the volume of spheroidal structures of antimony in the range of sizes of 10–4 – 10–6 m is presented. Spheroidal structures of antimony has been produced in a one-step process as a result of spontaneous crystallization of the melt. It was found that all of the array structures are core-shell type particles, consisting of various structural forms of the same substance: the core is a crystal gray antimony, shell - deformed antimony film thick 40 nm translucent for electrons, containing local dielectric nanoarea. The experimental Raman spectrum of the surface of spheroidal structures is characterized by the appearance of the doublet in the 1300 – 1700 cm–1. According to the results of numerical simulation of Raman spectra is proposed model of the film as allotrope of antimony – multi-layer antimonene.

Keywords: antimonene, multi-layer antimonene, core-shell structure, contrast charge, Raman scattering.

Kulikova Tatyana — Voronezh State University (394018 Voronezh University Square 1), postgraduate student. E-mail: kaimt@mail.ru.

Bityutskaya Larisa — Voronezh State University (394018 Voronezh University Square 1), PhD (Chem.), assoc. prof., expert in the field of non-equilibrium processes, non-linear metastable systems and nanomaterials. E-mail: me144@phys.vsu.ru.

Tuchin Andrey — Voronezh State University (394018 Voronezh University Square 1),
PhD (phys-math), expert in the field of quantum-mechanical modeling and carbon nanomaterials. E-mail: a.tuchin@bk.ru.

Averin Aleksey — Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry Russian Academy of Sciences (119071 Moscow Leninsky Prospekt, 31), researcher, expert in the field of Raman spectroscopy. E-mail: alx.av@yandex.ru.

Reference citing

Kulikova T. V., Bityutskaya L. A., Tuchin A. V., Averin A. A. Formirovanie allotropnoj nanomodifikacii Sb — mul'tiantimonena pri spontannoj kristallizacii rasplava [Formation of allotropic modifications of Sb — multi-layer antimonene by spontaneous crystallization of the melt]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2017, no. 3, pp. 5 – 13.

 
Combined matrixes for the immobilisation of organic liquid radioactive waste containing Cs-137 and Sr-90

A. V. Nikitin, J. V. Kondakova, A. B. Sazonov

It is proposed to use combined matrixes for the immobilization of the organic liquid radioactive waste (spent tributylphosphate in hydrocarbon diluent and technological oils) containing radionuclides Cs-137 and Sr-90. Higher charging of the matrixes with waste is achieved by preliminary mixing of the latter with thermally expanded graphite. Bentonite clays containing 65% montmorillonite should be added to the compounds to ensure tight trapping of cesium. It is shown that 25 vol.% is the optimal content of extractant in the compound and 20 vol.% is the optimum for the oil. Minimum curing time between the cement gauging and long-term storage or disposal is to be 42 days. Coating the compound surface with waterproof enamel creates no significant barrier for the leaching of cesium but, however, slows down the water uptake by the compound and therefore postpones the start of emersion of the radionuclides into liquid phase. Mechanical strength of obtained compounds fits the set requirements (GOST R 51883-2002). Average leaching rate of 137Cs was found to be no greater than 1 mg/(cm2·day); the same index for 90Sr + 90Y — no greater than 0,1 mg/(cm2·day). The kinetics of cesium leaching is limited by diffusion; the same of strontium and yttrium is limited by sorpion-desorption processes. Leaching rates of the radionuclides decrease as follows R(137Cs) > R(90Sr) >> R(90Y).

Keywords: radioactive oils, extractant, cesium, strontium, cement compounds, thermally expanded graphite, mechanical strength, leaching rate.

Nikitin Anton — D. Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia
(9-th Miusskaya sq., Moscow, 125047), PhD, High-energy chemistry and radioecology department, specializes in radioactive waste treatment and radiochemistry. E-mail:
nikitin_89@mail.ru.

Kondakova Julia — D. Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia
(9-th Miusskaya sq., Moscow, 125047), PhD, High-energy chemistry and radioecology department, specializes in radioactive waste treatment and radiochemistry. E-mail:
yuliochik@mail.ru.

Sazonov Alexey — D. Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia
(9-th Miusskaya sq., Moscow, 125047), PhD, assistant professor at High-energy chemistry and radioecology department, specializes in radiochemistry and radioecology. E-mail: absazonov@mail.ru.

Reference citing

Nikitin A. V., Kondakova J. V., Sazonov A. B. Kombinirovannye matricy dlya otverzhdeniya organicheskih zhidkih radioaktivnyh othodov, soderzhashchih Cs-137 i Sr-90 [Combined matrixes for the immobilisation of organic liquid radioactive waste containing Cs-137 and Sr-90]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2017, no. 3, pp. 14 – 25.

 
Comparative analysis of methods for increasing
 of biostability of collagen films

E. A. Nemets, A. P. Pankina, V. I. Sevastianov

Most often, glutaraldehyde (GA) is used to increase biostability of biological materials intended for the manufacture of implantable products or matrices for tissue-engineered constructs. However, this method has a number of side effects, including the manifestation of cytotoxicity of the final product, necessitating the search for new technological solutions. The original farm animals SC films were obtained by the method of irrigation (samples thickness ~ 150 µm), followed by drying at 370 °C to a constant weight in the air. For group 1 samples dehydrothermal treatment of films SK was carried out at a residual pressure of 10 – 20 mm of mercury and 120 °C. Samples of the 2nd group stabilized by UV crosslinking, processing the surface of the Philips CLEO Compact lamp (16 W, 254 nm, distance from lamp to sample is 3 cm). Treatment of the SC films of 3rd groups was conducted in GA vapor at room temperature for selected time interval (from 30 min to 18 h). In the 4th group consisted of samples SC, stabilized by traditional method of crosslinking of biological tissues: treatment of aqueous 25 % solution of GA with the final concentration in collagen solution from 0.0005 % to 1.0 % (processing time — 24 hours, room temperature). The biodegradation of the samples was assessed using accelerated tests in phosphate buffer (pH = 7.4, 37 °C, 1 h) containing collagenase at the rate of 1 unit of enzyme per 1 mg of dry sample, the reaction was terminated after 1 h by levering the temperature to 4 °C. The films of SC (mass loss 66 ± 9 %) were used as the control during the search of an optimal method of crosslinking. UV irradiation treatment weakly affects the biodegradation of the SC samples (mass loss 55 ± 5 %). The dehydrothermal treatment results in linearly decrease of biodegradation with increasing time of incubation and after 18 hours of treatment the mass loss of the samples SC is practically absent. It was found that the reduction of the GA concentration in the SC solution from 1.0 % to 0.001 % leads to a significant mass loss reduction of samples from 20 ± 3 % to 5 ± 1 %. Cross-linking of the samples of SC in GA vapor has also led to an increase of films SС biostability (mass loss absent after 18 hours of treatment). From four methods of SC films treatment investigated the optimal from the point of view of collagen-based materials biostability increasing are dehydrothermal treatment and cross-linking by glutaraldehyde vapor.

Keywords: scleral collagen, dehydrothermal treatment, glutardialdehyde, UV irradiation, collagenase, biodegradation.

Nemets Evgeniy — V.I. Shumakov Federal Research Center of Transplantology and Artificial Organs of the Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian Federation (123182, Moscow, Russian Federation, Schukinskaya street, 1), Ph.D., senior research assistant. The specialist in the field of biomaterials, tissue engineering, development of blood compatible materials. E-mail: evgnemets@yandex.ru.

Pankina Anna — Institute of Medico-Biological Research and Technologies (Moscow, Russian Federation (123557, Moscow, B. Tishinsky Pereulok, 43/20 b. 2), research assistant. The specialist in the field of material science and biodegradation. E-mail: amagniya@yandex.ru.

Sevastianov Viktor — V.I. Shumakov Federal Research Center of Transplantology and Artificial Organs of the Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian Federation (123182, Moscow, Russian Federation, Schukinskaya street, 1), head of biomedical technologies and tissue engineering division, Ph.D.,  professor. The specialist in the field of biomaterials, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, drug delivery systems. E-mail: viksev@yandex.ru.

Reference citing

Nemets E. A., Pankina A. P., Sevastianov V. I. Cravnitel'nyj analiz sposobov povysheniya biostabil'nosti plenok kollagena [Comparative analysis of methods for increasing of biostability of collagen films]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2017, no. 3, pp. 26 – 32.

 
Study of modifying additives on gas sensing properties of films based on polyacrylonitrile to chlorine

S. P. Konovalenko, T. A. Bednaya

The gas sensitive materials based on metal-containing (Ag, Co, Cu) polyacrilonitrile were received using IR-pyrolysis. It is shown that gas-sensing IR-pyrolized PAN films can be applied as a sensitive layer of power-effective gas sensors of resistive type. The analysis of gas-sensitivity of materials based on PAN with different alloying additives (copper, silver, cobalt) for creating non-heater gases sensor was settled. The coefficient of gas sensitivity patterns of sensing elements with respect to chlorine. It is shown that materials in the form of films cobalt-contained PAN have S ³ 3.69, and superior sensitivity on the order of samples on the basis of copper-contained PAN and silver -contained PAN at a comparable concentration of the detected gas. The optimum content of cobalt in the film material for creating the sensitive element of the sensor is 0.25 and 0.75 wt.%. It is established that cobalt-contained PAN films are the most perspective material for electronic technique elements especially for creation of sensors to gas.

Keywords: gas-sensing materials, gas-sensing element of sensor, nanocomposite materials, IR- pyrolize, metal-containing organic polymers.

Konovalenko Svetlana — Rostov State University of Economics (48, Iniciativnaya str., 347936 Taganrog, Russia), PhD (Eng), associate professor of theoretical, general physics and technology department, specialist in sensory properties of organometallic polymer films. E-mail: svetlana_s12@mail.ru.

Bednaya Tatiana — Don State Technical University (109 a, Petrovskaya str., 347904 Taganrog, Russia), PhD (Eng), associate professor of Department of humanities and natural science disciplines, specialist in sensory properties of organometallic polymer films. E-mail: bednayat@mail.ru.

Reference citing

Konovalenko S. P., Bednaya T. A. Issledovanie vliyaniya modificiruyushchih dobavok na gazochuvstvitel'nye svojstva plenok na osnove poliakrilonitrila k hloru [Study of modifying additives on gas sensing properties of films based on polyacrylonitrile to chlorine]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2017, no. 3, pp. 33 – 40.

 
Structure and properties of the Mo – 9 Si – 8 B alloy
obtained by casting

R. A. Gaisin, V. M. Imayev, R. A. Shaimardanov, R. M. Imayev

Microstructure, hot compression properties and oxidation resistance have been studied for the Mo – 9 Si – 8 B (at. %) alloy obtained by casting. In spite of the fact that as-cast ingot had coarse dendrite structure, the as-cast alloy exhibited excellent high temperature strength properties: at 1200 °C the yield strength was 700 MPa, and the maximum compression strength was 750 MPa. The obtained strength properties are much higher than those of the most creep resistant nickel based superalloys. Hot deformation was accompanied by a structure refinement of the matrix α-Mo phase and fragmentation of interdendritic intermetallic phases Mo3Si и Mo5SiB2. It is under discussion that oxidation resistance of the alloy may be improved through refinement of the dendrite structure and fabrication of fine-grained structure with a uniform distribution of the matrix and intermetallic phases.

Keywords: alloys based on Mo – Si – B, microstructure, mechanical properties at high temperatures

Gaisin Ramil — Institute for Metals Superplasticity Problems of Russian Academy of Sciences (ul. Khalturina 39, Ufa, 450001), PhD (Technical), researcher, expert in the field of materials science and physics of metals. E-mail: ramilgaisin@gmail.com.

Imayev Valery — Institute for Metals Superplasticity Problems of Russian Academy of Sciences (ul. Khalturina 39, Ufa, 450001), Dr Sci (Tech), head of laboratory, expert in the field of materials science and physics of metals. E-mail: vimayev@mail.ru.

Shaimardanov Ruslan — Institute for Metals Superplasticity Problems of Russian Academy of Sciences (ul. Khalturina 39, Ufa, 450001), graduate student, trainee researcher, specialist in the field of materials science and casting. E-mail: ruslan.shaimardanov92@yandex.ru.

Imayev Renat — Institute for Metals Superplasticity Problems of Russian Academy of Sciences (ul. Khalturina 39, Ufa, 450001), Dr Sci (Technical), senior researcher, deputy director for science, expert in the field of materials science and physics of metals. E-mail: renat_imayev@mail.ru.

Reference citing

Gaisin R. A., Imayev V. M., Shaimardanov R. A., Imayev R. M. Struktura i svojstva splava Mo – 9 Si – 8 B, poluchennogo lit'em [Structure and properties of the Mo – 9 Si – 8 B alloy obtained by casting]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2017, no. 3, pp. 41 – 48.

 

Structure and properties of the nickel aluminide materials obtained using different technologies

 Е. Е. Kornienko, L. I. Shevtsova, N. S. Belousova, А. А. Nikulina,
А. I. Smirnov, V. I. Kuz’min, О. А. Rubtsova

The intermetallics of the Ni – Al system (Ni3Al и NiAl) possess relatively low density, high corrosion resistance and heat resistance. Due to this they are the most well-known phases of this system. In this study, structural features of this system materials
(Ni – base, 28 – 30 at. % Al) obtained using plasma spraying and spark plasma sintering are considered. The coatings from the PN85Yu15 powder were deposited on tubes from low carbon steel (0.2 wt. % C) by plasma spraying using a unit of annular injection and gas-dynamic focusing of powder. The cylindrical samples from the PN85Yu15 powder with diameter 30 mm and high 5-6 mm were received by spark plasma sintering. Structure and phase composition of the obtained materials was studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray analysis. It was showed that 52.4 % Ni3Al and 47.6 % Ni5Al3 are the major phases of the plasma coatings. 95 % Ni3Al and 5 % NiAl are the major phases of the sintered materials. The material of the plasma coatings constitutes the grains of the Ni5Al3 phase with size up to 5 μm. The Ni3Al phase forms along grains boundaries. Two types of grains (Ni3Al и NiAl) are observed in the sintered material. Microhardness of the sintered material is lower than the microhardness of the plasma coatings (3500 – 4000 and 5500 – 6000 МPа, respectively). Porosity of the sintered material and the plasma coatings is equal (about 6 – 7 %).

Keywords: intermetallic, nickel aluminide, plasma spraying, spark plasma sintering.

Kornienko Elena — Novosibirsk State Technical University  (20, Prospekt K. Marksa, Novosibirsk, 630073), Ph.D., associate professor of Materials science in mechanical engineering, expert in the field of plasma spraying and structural studies. E-mail: kornienko_ee@mail.ru.

Shevtsova Lilia — Novosibirsk State Technical University (20, Prospekt K. Marksa, Novosibirsk, 630073), Ph.D., senior lecturer of Materials science in mechanical engineering, expert in the field of obtain of powder composite materials based on nickel aluminide. E-mail: edeliya2010@mail.ru.

Belousova Natalya — Novosibirsk State Technical University (20, Prospekt K. Marksa, Novosibirsk, 630073), Ph.D., associate professor of Materials science in mechanical engineering, expert in the field of X-ray analysis. E-mail: kapriz.ru@mail.ru.

Nikulina Ayelita — Novosibirsk State Technical University (20, Prospekt K. Marksa, Novosibirsk, 630073), Ph.D., associate professor of Materials science in mechanical engineering, expert in the field of welding of the dissimilar materials. E-mail: _aelita27@mail.ru.

Smirnov Alexandr — Novosibirsk State Technical University (20, Prospekt K. Marksa, Novosibirsk, 630073), Ph.D., senior lecturer of Materials science in mechanical engineering, expert in the field of transmission electron microscopy. E-mail: a_smirnov@ngs.ru.

Kuz’min Victor — Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS (Institutskaya str., 4/1, Novosibirsk, 630090), Ph.D., senior researcher of laboratory Physics of plasma arc and laser processes, expert in the field of plasma-powder cladding and spraying of various functional and ceramic coatings. E-mail: vikuzmin57@mail.ru.

Rubtsova Oksana — Novosibirsk State Technical University (20, Prospekt K. Marksa, Novosibirsk, 630073), student of Materials science in mechanical engineering. E-mail:
oksana.rubtsova@yandex.ru.

Reference citing

Kornienko Е. Е., Shevtsova L. I., Belousova N. S., Nikulina А. А.,
Smirnov А. I., Kuz’min V. I., Rubtsova О. А. Struktura i svojstva materialov iz alyuminidov nikelya, poluchennyh s ispol'zovaniem razlichnyh tekhnologij [Structure and properties of the nickel aluminide materials obtained using different technologies]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2017, no. 3, pp. 49 – 58.

 
Preparation and properties of porous ceramics based
on alumomagnesium spinel and zirconium dioxide

L. V. Morozova, M. V. Kalinina, O. A. Shilova

The basic technology for the preparation of porous nanoceramics based on alumo-magnesium spinel (MgAl2O4) and zirconium dioxide stabilized in the tetragonal structure (t-ZrO2) with an open porosity of ≥ 40 % were developed. It was been revealed that the cocrystallization method of salt solutions with subsequent mechanochemical activation of the crystalline allows to obtain nanosized powders MgAl2O4 precursors and t-ZrO2 (≤ 20 nm). It was been shown the possibility of regulating the magnitude of the open porosity and pore size by choosing the optimal sintering temperature and the kind and amount of pore-forming additives. The increase of the volume fraction of blowing agent in the original mass of the powder leads to the increase in the width of the distribution of pore size was established. The nanoporous ceramics was obtained, the pore size is 25 – 100 nm for MgAl2O4 and 100 – 300 nm for of t-ZrO2. The technological scheme of applying а membrane layer a-Al2O3 on a porous matrix of t-ZrO2 was developed.

Key words: соcrystallization, nanopowders, nanoporous ceramics, open porosity, distribution of pore size.

Morozova Ludmila — Grebenshchikov Institute of Silicate Chemistry RAS (199034
St.-Petersburg, Makarov emb., 2), Ph.D., senior researcher, specialists in the field of physical chemistry and methods of synthesis of oxide nanomaterials. E-mail: morozova_l_v@mail.ru.

Kalinina Marina — Grebenshchikov Institute of Silicate Chemistry RAS (199034
St.-Petersburg, Makarov emb., 2), Ph.D., senior researcher, specialist in physical and chemical properties of nanocrystalline oxide materials. E-mail: kalinina1000@gmail.com.

Shilova Olga — Grebenshchikov Institute of Silicate Chemistry RAS (199034 St.-Petersburg, Makarov emb., 2), Dr Sci, head of laboratory of inorganic synthesis, specialist in the field of physical chemistry and technology of glass-ceramic nanocomposite materials. E-mail: olgashilova@bk.ru.

Reference citing

Morozova L. V., Kalinina M. V., Shilova O. A. Poluchenie i svojstva poristoj keramiki na osnove alyumomagnievoj shpineli i dioksida cirkoniya [Preparation and properties of porous ceramics based on alumomagnesium spinel and zirconium dioxide]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2017, no. 3, pp. 59 – 68.

 
The prospective use of waste coal in the production
of insulating material without the use of traditional
natural materials

V. Z. Abdrakhimov, E. S. Abdrakhimova

It is shown that one of the promising directions for the production of thermal insulation materials are waste coal (waste of fuel and energy complex). Derived from waste coal without the use of traditional natural materials insulation materials (ceramic lightweight bricks), the density of which does not exceed 1250 kg/m3. Developed innovative proposals for reducing negative impacts of toxic waste processing on environmental objects, the novelty of which is confirmed by 4 patents of the RF. The investigated coal waste have a high calorific value (1800 – 2800 kcal/kg), these wastes should be used only as otoshidama, but also as a burnable additives, which will allow to exclude the use in the compositions of ceramic masses of anthracite, coke breeze, etc. Burnable additive containing elevated amounts of organic compounds (p.p.p. 15%) and iron oxide (Fe2O3 more than 3 %), not only increase the porosity of ceramic products, but also facilitate uniform sintering of a ceramic crock. Studies have shown that in samples of insulation materials basically there are three types of pores: slit-like, isothermal and pore bizarre. In addition, the samples are relatively large pores are oval and isometric pores are type “channels”. It is these pores determine the water absorption of ceramic materials. The presence of pores and, consequently, the heterogeneity of the material, adversely affect the properties of ceramic products, and the harmful effect on the mechanical strength of the elongated (slit-like) pores estimated to be approximately
5 times more than round. In addition, the presence of slit-shaped pores involves the incomplete completion of the sintering process. The use of waste fuel and energy complex in the production of ceramic materials will allow to disposal of waste, to save scarce traditional natural materials, to expand the raw material base of construction materials and will make a significant contribution to environmental protection.

Key words: waste coal, insulation materials, physical-mechanical properties, porosity, fuel and energy complex.

Abdrakhimov Vladimir ─ Samara state University of Economics, Department of materials science (Samara, 443090, Samara, Soviet Army street, 141), DrSci (Eng), professor, specialist in the field of physical chemistry of the silicates. E-mail: 3375892@mail.ru.

Abdrakhimova Elena ─ Samara state aerospace University, Department of chemistry (Samara, 443086 St. Moscow shosse, 34, Samara, Russia), PhD (Eng), associate professor, specialist in the field of physical chemistry of the silicates. E-mail: 3375892@mail.ru.

Reference citing

Abdrakhimov V. Z., Abdrakhimova E. S. Perspektivnoe ispol'zovanie othodov ugleobogashcheniya v proizvodstve teploizolyacionnogo materiala bez primeneniya prirodnyh tradicionnyh materialov [The prospective use of waste coal in the production of insulating material without the use of traditional natural materials]. Perspektivnye Materialy — Advanced Materials (in Russ), 2017, no. 3, pp. 69 – 78.